Participants

Academic Partners

Potential to reinforce the training capacities of the hosts:

The proposed multi-host network training programme represents a significant asset to improve the training capacities of the hosts. Each of the four academic partner institutes have developed individually their doctoral training schools. They have also achieved research excellence in complementary research fields. Specifically, the University of Leicester has established a solid CFD research track record, the Politecnico di Torino is highly regarded for its fluid dynamic experimentation and PIV, the Università degli Studi di Roma Tre has aeroacoustic expertise of international standing and the IMFT excels in flow control and robust control. At each doctoral school, the facilities and the EST training tend focus in the respective areas of specialization. By combining their doctoral schools under this EST programme, the four academic partners are creating a new structure within the European Research Area. This structure can host aerodynamic and aeroacoustic training across the four areas of individual expertise, delivering to EST students more methodological choice and multi-disciplinarity without compromising on the training quality. In addition, the trainees benefit from peer-support from students in other institutes studying the same flow with a different methodology, from a closer contact with the ERA industry and from the mobility within the ERA. These latter two are aspects that hosts have a greater difficulty achieving, when acting individually.

Quality of the International Collaboration:

The University of Leicester, the Università degli Studi di Roma Tre, the Politecnico di Torino and the IMFT have separate but highly complementary training expertise and facilities. This complementarity is exploited by the multi-host network through coordinated research activities. These activities lead to high value coordinated synergic training that strengthens the competitiveness of the European Research Area. This process is shown diagrammatically in the figure below:

flow chart

IMFT

Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse offers research training instability, flow control and in optimal control. Dr. Christophe Airiau, Maître de Conferences, Université Paul Sabatier, has a 12-year research experience on theoretical and numerical models of flow instabilities developing over spatially inhomogeneous base flows, in particular employing multiple scale approaches. He has more recently applied this expertise to the study of inverse problems, which are the search of optimal flow conditions to excite and sustain flow instabilities. The latter study can be tackled by employing the adjoint stability equations method. The adjoint approach to flow receptivity has been pioneered on inhomogeneous flows by Prof. Alessandro Bottaro at the Université Paul Sabatier. Dr. Airiau has applied this technique to model the receptivity of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in boundary layers. In this multi-host programme, this approach is proposed as the method of choice to identify those flow events that are related to the dynamics of coherent structures and are the main acoustic noise sources in the cavity flow. Adjoint and direct systems of equations can be put together in an iterative approach to yield optimal control solutions under given constraints. This approach has been pursued at IMFT over the last six years and has produced excellent results in damping a number of instability waves, both at linear and non-linear regimes. Recently, the receptivity of a shear layer to an acoustic excitation was modelled using Direct Numerical Simulation and their adjoint counterpart. Modelling receptivity in a shear flow represents the initial stage to develop an optimal control technique for the aerodynamic noise from a wide-body airframe cavity. A similar receptivity analysis is now being performed on a cavity flow.

Dr. Azeddine Kourta, CNRS offers supervision in the numerical development of high accuracy codes for high speed, compressible, laminar and turbulent flows. The previous experience by Dr. Kourta in aero-acoustic computations for the Ariane 5 boosters is instrumental in the present work. Current research is devoted to coupling these efficient numerical methods to adjoint techniques for optimal noise control purposes. Recently, the sub-optimal control of a cavity flow was successfully achieved using a synthetic jet.

engineer pointing at computerEarly stage researchers takes advantage of the structure of IMFT that is appropriate for them, in particular of its excellent computing facilities and library and of the enriching and stimulating environment of one of the best fluid mechanics research centres in France. In addition to research tuition, early stage researchers at the IMFT may pursue their learning objectives through taught modules. These modules are offered at a postgraduate (pre-doctoral) level. They are part of the new Master Recherche de Dynamique des Fluides, Energétique et Transfert de Toulouse (fluid dynamic and heat transfer), which is a Master of Science (MSc) type postgraduate course offered by a pool of Toulouse universities, including those constituting the IMFT. These modules are appropriate for early stage researchers and aim to provide a broad fluid mechanics knowledge base to mechanical and aerospace engineers. Early stage researchers enrolled in this multi-host EST programme may choose to follow one or more modules of the Master Recherche à la carte, according to their needs. About 62 course modules are available. The module choice is broad as the Master Recherche is a programme offered jointly by the Université Paul Sabatier and by three technical universities, the Institut Nationale Polytechnique de Toulouse, SupAero, and ENSICA. The core curriculum of the Master Recherche has a strong emphasis on scientific computing, wave theory, on hydrodynamic stability, on turbulence and on heat transfer. Among the optional modules, the new module Optimal Control of Flow and Heat Transfer, taught by Pr. Airiau offers appropriate training for the needs of early stage researchers who wish to control the noise radiated from a cavity shear layer or from landing gear well flows. This module also offers grounding on flow control approaches, based on reduced-order descriptions of flows. Other optional modules offered within this programme include High Order Numerical Methods, covering the basics of spectral and spectral element methods for the simulation of compressible and incompressible flows, and Vortex Flows, covering basic topics on the dynamics and stability of vortical flows. Early stage researchers are also offered a series of seminars, with topics ranging from the use of Matlab to the essentials of the PIV and DPIV techniques. Full details of the Master Recherche can be found on the site: http://www.imft.fr/masterDET

Trainees follows their doctoral study inside the doctoral school MEGEP (Ecole doctorale Mécanique, Energétique, Génie Civil et Procédés)

The University of Leicester

Engineers looking at computerThe University of Leicester offers taught course modules and research tuition in computational fluid dynamics and in scientific computing. Research tuition is offered by members of the Thermofluids and Environmental Engineering Research Group at the Department of Engineering, University of Leicester. Dr. A. Rona has a 12-year research experience in unsteady compressible cavity flows and in CFD. He offers specific tuition in time-dependent numerical methods applied to cavity geometries, in adaptive grid refinement methods to locally refine the flow-cavity edge interactions and to study the noise source near field. Dr. C.M. Coats has a fundamental interest in large-scale structures in separated and reattaching flow, developed over 30 years of research. He is offering support and training in the statistical characterisation of the shear layer structures that develop above the landing gear well. The large-scale structure intermittency and receptivity to phase coherent and “random” disturbances greatly influence the overall magnitude of the instability in a landing gear well flow. Dr. S. Gao has a high-level academic expertise in turbulence modelling, with a special competence in Large Eddy Simulations. He offers tuition to early stage researchers who would like to develop and apply different turbulence closure strategies to landing gear well flow models. This complex flow is a good candidate for a hybrid Large Eddy Simulation/Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations approach, such as a Detached Eddy Simulation. This training is appropriate for Early Stage researchers wishing to achieve a high-level expertise in CFD. This training forms human resources able to integrate the latest CFD techniques in the aircraft design tools currently used in the ERA. This is likely to make a tangible impact to the long-term competitiveness of the ERA aeronautical sector.

At the University of Leicester, taught course modules are available to complement research tuition. A four-months Advanced Aerodynamics taught MEng/MSc module covers dimensional analysis for aerodynamicists, classification of flow regimes, non-stationary flows, turbulence and flow averaging techniques. This module introduces to discrete flow models and to basic flow domain discretisation issues and demonstrates them by hands-on use of a commercial CFD package. A second four-months MSc module in advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics extends the learning subject of the previous module to compressible flows, addressing also numerical integration techniques for computational fluid dynamics, numerical scheme robustness, critical evaluation of CFD data and the post-processing and analysis of complex flow fields. Further training in scientific computing is offered à la carte, from a pool of courses that is shared between the Department of Engineering and the Department of Applied Mathematics. This pool includes basic and advanced numerical methods, wavelets, design and analysis of discrete systems, digital signal processing, statistical methods and other similar courses. The Advanced Aerodynamics module is part of the MEng course in Mechanical Engineering that is accredited by the UK Institute of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE), on the behalf of the UK Engineering Council. This course satisfies the Council’s Standards And Routes TO Registration (SARTOR) 3 academic requirements for Chartered Engineer. The CFD module is part of the MSc course in Advanced Mechanical Engineering and was designed for the postgraduate training of Batchelor graduates to satisfy the SARTOR 3 academic requirements for Chartered Engineer registration by the UK Engineering Council. It is appropriate for Early Stage researchers wishing to advance their undergraduate mechanical engineering background.

The università degli Studi di Roma Tre

equipmentThe Università degli Studi di Roma Tre offers research tuition in experimental and computational aeroacoustics. Research tuition is offered by members of the Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, who have an established and internationally recognized expertise in experimental aeroacoustics and aerodynamics, boundary integral methods for integrated aerodynamic/aeroacoustic analyses, in CFD simulations of external flows and in turbulence modelling. Prof. G. Guj and Prof. R. Camussi offer tuition in experimental aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. They also have a high level expertise in methods for statistical data analysis, coherent structures identification from experimental data and in advanced scientific computing, such as in advanced methods for data processing and wavelet transforms. In 2003, Prof. Camussi and Prof. Guj completed extensive time-accurate near-field measurements in length to depth ratio cavities of 13 and above. They also collaborate with Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA) to a program of “Analysis of VEGA Launcher Model Aeroacoustics by Wind Tunnel Measurements”. In this multi-host programme, these experimental techniques is extended to landing gear well geometries, to study the cavity aeroacoustic environment. The investigative techniques includes unsteady far-field and wall pressure measurements with microphones and auto- and cross-correlations of the velocity field to estimate the aerodynamic noise source distribution (Lighthill stress tensor distribution). Advanced techniques is applied to measure simultaneously the velocity and pressure fields in the flow and close to solid wall, following the successful research path of the 2003 investigation. The training and tuition offered by Prof. Camussi and Prof. Guj is very appropriate for early stage researchers who wish to develop an expert knowledge of aerodynamic sound generation and propagation. These skills are keenly sought after by a range of ERA industries, including the multi-host industrial collaborators, to comply with increasingly stringent noise regulations and customer expectations.

Professors L. Morino M. Gennaretti and U. Iemma are a research team active in computational aeroacoustics (CAA) at the Università degli Studi di Roma Tre. They specialise in boundary element CAA methods and in aeroacoustic propagation models. They have established their CAA expertise internationally over more than 20 years of research activity. In this EST programme, they offer specific tuition on integral approaches for aeroacoustic noise generation and propagation. The team proposes to use a boundary integral approach for the aeroacoustic analysis of aircraft landing gear well flows. This approach starts from near-field aerodynamic CFD predictions of pressure and velocity on surfaces neighbouring where noise is generated in the flow. Noise propagation models is based either on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy or on the Kirchhoff boundary integral method. Specific tuition is offered also on integrated aerodynamic and aeroacoustic approaches to model the noise generated by moving lifting bodies, such as open landing gear well doors in aircraft sideslip, based on a potential-flow boundary integral method. Tuition in CFD, concerning RANS, unsteady RANS and related Eddy Viscosity models, is supported by Prof. G. Guj who is expert in the CFD simulation of internal and external flows. The specific knowledge and skills available at the Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, spanning from experimental aeroacoustic to numerical CAA and CFD, is integrated to offer the highest level of tuition to trainees. This training in computational aeroacoustics complements well that in experimental techniques by Prof. Guj and Prof. Camussi. It gives a combined view of aerodynamic noise generation and propagation and is important and appropriate for early stage researchers.

In addition to research tuition, early stage researchers at the Università degli Studi di Roma Tre may pursue their learning objectives through taught modules that are offered at a postgraduate/pre-doctoral level within the framework of the Second Level Degree in Aeronautics (Laurea Specialistica in Aeronautica) which follows a first level degree in Mechanical Engineering. These modules aim to provide a broad knowledge base in aeronautics to mechanical engineers who join this multi-host EST programme. Early stage researchers have an opportunity to select specific modules or part of modules offered within this Second Level Degree in Aeronautics to learn topics that are relevant to their individual Career Development Plan. These taught modules cover boundary elements, introduction to CFD, experimental techniques, scientific computing and signal processing. These topics are very appropriate to the needs of early stage researchers wishing to specialise in computational and experimental aeroacoustics. These modules include significant hands-on training in laboratories, for experimentation, and in computer classes, to practice CFD. Seminars and lecture series are offered to early stage researchers on more advanced topics, such as on the application of wavelet transforms to their research, on optimisation methods and on Detached Eddy Simulation. This activity aims to give early stage researchers an opportunity to obtain individual doctoral profiles, tailored through the Career Development Plan, that are attractive not only to the academia but also to SME, to industry and to private research centres.

The Politecnico di Torino (DIASP)

The Politecnico di Torino (Technical University of Turin) offers research tuition in wind tunnel techniques, including Particle Flow Velocimetry (PIV). The Politecnico is a Centre of Excellence in Italy and the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) has ranked it one of the best Italian engineering schools. This achievement is supported by a strong collaboration between the Department of Aeronautical Engineering (DIASP) and the Department of Metrology of the Italian National Research Centre (CNR). CNR has commissioned at the Department a two-dimensional cross-section wind tunnel, very appropriate to study cavity flows with PIV instrumentation. The availability of such dedicated facility is appropriate for the needs of early stage researchers who require ample wind tunnel time to develop their experimental rigor, practice and refine their wind tunnel experimental techniques and reflect upon the performance and limitations of their set-up.

Particle Image Velocimetry is a highly sought-after experimental technique by early stage researchers, towards a successful career in experimental aerodynamics. It is a relatively novel laser-based wind tunnel measurement technique. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV), a further development of PIV, is now also available. This technique is specifically appropriate for this programme’s field of research as it potentially provides a quantitative measurement of the instantaneous velocity vector distribution inside a representative landing gear well or cavity geometry. Wind tunnel training is headed by Prof. M. Onorato, expanding on the existing fluid dynamics doctorate training scheme at the Politecnico di Torino. Further supervision and support is offered by Prof. Tordella, who has experience in teaching basic and applied fluid mechanics. Prof. Tordella is active in Large Eddy Simulation. She supports projects that combine the outcome from the wind tunnel experiments with LES numerical modelling, to obtain a combined insight into the unsteadiness of landing gear well flows. This activity promotes the interdisciplinarity in the training programme. It reinforces and complements the numerical methods training at the University of Leicester. This training makes a tangible impact on the availability of good quality experimental aerodynamicists within the ERA who can apply state of the art experimental techniques to airframe design and understand the potentials and limitations of the latest CFD techniques.

In addition to research tuition, early stage researchers at the Politecnico di Torino may pursue their learning objectives through taught modules in experimental methods and in scientific computing. These modules are taught at a postgraduate level, or “level 3”, and are appropriate to the needs of early stage researchers. The Signal and Noise taught module offers grounding in signal acquisition and noise control, applicable to wind tunnel instrumentation. It is appropriate for the need of early stage researchers in experimental aerodynamics who wish to develop their experimental set-up to study unsteady landing gear well flows. Students are trained to perform a careful design of the wind tunnel instrumentation and data acquisition systems, to obtain good quality measurements of the cavity flow instability. The Measurement Methods and Data Processing module introduces early stage researchers to statistical methods for experimental data processing. It is an appropriate module for students who intend to specialise in experimental methods for aircraft aerodynamics. It enables students to examine by statistical methods the consistency of their measurements and to determine appropriate confidence intervals in the acquired data. Similar concepts for the statistical interpretation of experimental data are taught in the module Statistical Methods in Experiments, which can be taken by early stage researchers as an alternative to Measurement Methods and Data Processing. Cavity flows at low speeds are known to develop interesting mode switching patterns that can be addressed by wavelet analysis. A module on this subject is offered at the Politecnico di Torino. Further training is offered in the Data Analysis and Prediction module, concerning the characterisation of dynamic systems through data analysis, applicable to time-dependent wind tunnel experiments. This module is relevant to EST trainees to characterize the dynamics of a landing gear well flow. It builds upon the contents of Measurement Methods and Data Processing and can be further advanced by Dynamic Systems for Statistical Mechanics, which investigates systems stability applied to fluid mechanics.

To cater for early stage researchers who join this multi-host programme with a general engineering background, two aerodynamic undergraduate taught modules are available as a short conversion course to wind tunnel testing. Experimental Fluid Dynamics is a “level 2” undergraduate module that introduces the use of dimensional analysis and of similarity parameters to design wind tunnel models. It covers wind tunnel measurement techniques such as force balances, pressure transducers and Pitot probes, hot-wire anemometry, laser Doppler velocimetry and flow visualisation techniques. 48 hours of hands-on wind tunnel training are offered as part of this module. This module is followed by Experimental Aerodynamics, a “level 2” final year undergraduate module that demonstrates the integration of wind tunnel tests and numerical techniques, to produce a consistent analysis of the flow. It covers the design and planning of the experiment, the operation of subsonic wind tunnels, wind tunnel blockage and wall interference, directional anemometry and quantitative flow visualisation techniques. This module is also 50% laboratory based.

AeroTraNet industrial collaborators

Four mains partners are linked to AeroTranet programme:

airbus logo renault logo fiat logo alstom logo

This EST programme has been constructed in consultation with industry. The programme has received support in kind by Airbus who are willing to provide a landing gear well geometry and small airframe cavity geometries, such as the fuel vent, as test cases for this multi-host EST activity. Airbus also offer industrial secondments to EST trainees in their Acoustics and Environment Department and/or in their loads and aeroelasticity department subject to the approval by the Airbus Management and Human Resources Department. This makes this EST training programme very responsive to the medium and long term needs of this prominent EU industry, whilst maintaining the commitment to training in academic excellence and scholarly work for the needs of the EU academia. Airbus France also wishes to support EST students by opening to them the attendance to the RAeS seminar series in aeronautics at Airbus Toulouse, organised by the Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS), Toulouse branch.

The EST programme has received further support in kind form Fiat Auto, Italy, who has expressed interest in strengthening its expertise in road vehicle aeroacoustics by meeting the early stage researchers during their training. Fiat is considering opening its established industrial secondment scheme to EST students. Under this scheme, EST trainees is invited to give a seminar on their research and consider collaborations and career perspectives in road vehicle aeroacoustics, beyond the terms of the EST programme.

Renault has also expressed a keen interest in research applicable to automotive cavity noise. Renault provides EST trainees with technical advice and their research perspective on vehicle aeroacoustics. EST trainees can discuss their research, present a seminar and explore their career perspectives with Renault. The work between Renault and the EST trainees is covered by an appropriate confidentiality agreement.

The Alstom UK, Rugby, including both its Engineering and R&D Services Business and its Aerospace Operations Business, is also an industrial collaborator in this EST programme. These businesses provide support to ALSTOM’s global power generation equipment supply activities and major aerospace manufacturers respectively. Their activities in turbomachinery (both power generation and aero-engine) cavity flow design and flows in and around aerospace structures (such as aircraft engines, nacelles and pylons) share common flow physics with the airframe cavity flows addressed in this EST programme. The Centre contributes to the EST training by opening a selection of its internal technical seminar series to EST trainees at the University of Leicester, at least one of which is expected to focus on the provision of engineering services in the field of aerospace aerodynamics. In return, EST students is invited to give an annual presentation on their work.

Given this significant EU industrial interest and support at the proposal stage, the EST training partners are confident the programme benefits the ERA and that they can to expand their industrial collaboration portfolio during the implementation of the work programme.

This EST programme addresses the relevant and current training needs of the European Research Area. It does so by aiming to provide excellent postgraduate training to deliver a workforce that is highly employable across the whole European Research Area. Perspective first work destinations for EST postgraduates are the ERA aircraft manufacturers, the academia, the road vehicle ERA manufacturers, turbomachinery ERA manufacturers, the ERA state-owned research centres and public-private initiatives (Qinetiq, CIRA, ONERA, etc.), rail vehicle manufacturers and consultancy firms.

List of academic participants

List of Marie Curie fellows (and access to personal webpage):

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