Footnote referencing style

How to reference information resources you have used for course assignments using footnotes.

This guidance applies from October 2015. If you started your assignment before this academic year (2015/16), please check your department's student handbook for any specific guidance on referencing using a footnote style as it may differ from the guidance below in some respects.

Introduction

Welcome to our guide on how to reference using the University of Leicester footnote style.

Please follow the examples given below for the different types of sources you have used.  Make sure you are consistent in how you reference your sources.

If there isn’t an example included for a type of source you have used, please follow the closest example available and include all the information someone else would need to find it.

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General guidance

References within the text

References are indicated within the text by a footnote, references are then given at the bottom of the page.  Footnotes should be placed at the end of the relevant sentence where possible and should follow punctuation (for example, by being placed after the full stop).  Superscript Arabic numbers should be used in the text to indicate footnotes, for example 1.  Footnotes can be inserted in Microsoft Word by clicking on Insert Footnote from the References tab. Each footnote ends with a full stop.

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Referencing specific pages

If you are referring to a specific page or pages of a source, this should be indicated at the end of your reference by:

  • p. and the page number for single pages
  • pp. for references to more than one page.

If the reference already includes page numbers (for example, references to journal articles or book chapters will include the page numbers of the whole source), put your specific page reference in brackets after the page numbers of the source included in the reference.

If you are referring to a source where the page numbers may change on later viewing (for example an eBook which may give different page numbers when displayed on different devices or on different magnification) give the chapter or paragraph you are referring to at the end of your reference rather than page numbers.

Examples

Alan Bryman, Social research methods, 4th edn (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2012), p.21.

Katherine Foxhall, ‘Fever, immigration and quarantine in New South Wales, 1837–1840’, Social History of Medicine, 24, no.3 (2011), pp.624-42 (p.625).

James Chapman and Nicholas J. Cull, Projecting empire: imperialism and popular cinema (London: I B Tauris, 2009), chapter 2.

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First and subsequent references

The first time you refer to a source, full details should be given.  If you are referring to the same work in the immediately following footnote you can use ibid instead of writing the full reference.  For any other subsequent references, a short form of the reference should be given.  This should include the author and the title (but not any subtitle).  If your footnotes are included in your word count and you want to save words, you may shorten subsequent references further to just the author and enough significant words from the title to identify it (see footnote 6 below for an example of this).

Examples

(Where footnote 4 refers to the same source as footnote 3).

1 Glenn Loney, ‘Entertaining Mr Loney: an early interview with Joe Orton’, New Theatre Quarterly, 4, no.16 (1988), pp.300-5.

2
Yael Zarhy-Levo, The theatrical critic as cultural agent: constructing Pinter, Orton and Stoppard as absurdist playwrights (New York: Peter Lang, 2001).

3
Joe Orton, Entertaining Mr Sloane, Emma Parker (ed.) (London: Bloomsbury, 2014).

4 Ibid.

5
Glenn Loney, ‘Entertaining Mr Loney’.

6 Yael Zarhy-Levo, Theatrical critic.

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Quotations

Please refer to your department for guidance on how to indicate and format quotations within the text of your work.

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Authors

Authors', editors' and translators' names should be given as they appear in the original source.  If there is no individual author listed for a source, use the corporate author if available.  The corporate author is the organisation responsible for writing the source – for example, the BBC.

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Missing information

If you are unable to find some of the details needed for your reference, replace them in the reference as below.  If you cannot find the date of publication, replace it with [n.d.].  If you cannot find a publisher (where this would normally be included in a reference), replace it with [n.pub.].  If you cannot find a place of publication (where this would normally be included in a reference), replace it with [n.pl.].

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Secondary referencing

Secondary referencing is when you refer to a source that has been mentioned in the source you have viewed.  You should always try to access the original source and reference that but, if that is not possible, give the author of the source you want to refer to, then 'quoted in', then the full reference for the source you have actually viewed.

Example

Scipione Mercurio, quoted in David Gentilcore, Medical charlatanism in early modern Italy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p.11.

If a document is reproduced in full in the source you are referring to, follow the Documents in Published Editions guidelines.

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How to reference different types of source

Books

If there are up to three authors or editors, include all their names in the reference.  For more than three authors or editors, give the first name and then 'et al.’ (Latin abbreviation for and others).

Editors should be indicated by putting (ed.) after their name for single editors, or (eds) after their names for multiple editors.  Translators should be indicated by putting (trans.) after their names.

Where books have either authors or editors, give their names before the title of the book.

Where books have both authors and editors or translators, give the author’s name before the title of the book and then the editor's or translator’s name after the title of the book.

Titles are as they appear on the title page of the book, using capital letters for the first word of the title and all proper nouns and a colon to separate titles from subtitles.  Where words in italics have been included on the title page of the book, indicate these in your reference by using regular text.

If a book is part of a numbered series (for example, some publishers may produce series of books on a particular topic), give the number and series title.  If you are referring to one volume in a multi-volume set, give the volume number and title after the volume title.

The edition of the book, if after the first, should be given.

Author, Book title (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication).

Examples

James Chapman and Nicholas J. Cull, Projecting empire: imperialism and popular cinema (London: I B Tauris, 2009).

Lorna Bleach and Keira Borrill (eds), Battle and bloodshed: the medieval world at war (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013).

Elizabeth J. Clapp and Julie Roy Jeffrey (eds), Women, dissent and anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790-1865 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Joe Orton, Entertaining Mr Sloane, Emma Parker (ed.) (London: Bloomsbury, 2014).

Joseph-Emile Muller, Velazquez, Jane Brenton (trans.) (London: Thames and Hudson, 1976).

Stuart Ball (ed.), Parliament and politics in the age of Churchill and Attlee: the Headlam diaries, 1935-1951, Camden fifth series volume 14 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press for the Royal Historical Society, 1999).

Julie Coleman, A history of cant and slang dictionaries, volume III: 1859-1936 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

Alan Bryman, Social research methods, 4th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).

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Chapters in books

Follow the same rules for referencing a book, but add in the additional information below for the chapter.

Chapter Author, ‘Chapter title’, in Book Author, Book title (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication), pp. page numbers of chapter.

Example

Lisanne Gibson, ‘Cultural landscapes and identity’, in Lisanne Gibson and John Pendlebury (eds), Valuing historic environments (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009), pp.67-92.

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Early printed books

For early printed books (those printed before 1800), follow the guidance for referencing Books.  The information you are able to find on them however may vary.  If you are unable to find all the information you need, follow the guidance in the Missing Information section.  The titles of early printed books may be very long, so you may find it necessary to abbreviate them (see the second example below, where the title has been abbreviated after Leicester).  Retain the original spellings of words, though you may wish to modernise ambiguous letters (for example, u or v).

Example

A collection of the rights and priviledges of parliament (London: Laurence Chapman, 1642).

Robert Pye, A more exact relation of the siege laid to the town of Leicester (London: Laurence Chapman, 1645).

John Polemon, All the famous battels that have bene fought in our age (London: Henrye Bynneman, 1578).

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Journal articles

If the journal does not have a volume number or an issue number, leave these out.  If the journal is part of a numbered series, include this information in the reference before the volume number.

Author, ‘Article title’, Journal Title, Volume number, no.Issue number (Year), pp.pages of article.

Examples

Phillip Lindley, ‘The funeral and tomb effigies of Queen Katharine of Valois and King Henry V’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 160, no.1 (2007), pp.165-177.

James Walvin, 'The slave trade, abolition and public memory', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 19 (2009), pp.139-149.

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Newspaper and magazine articles

If the article is in a specific section of a newspaper or magazine, include the title of the section in your reference.  If an article from a newspaper or magazine doesn’t have a title or an individual author, leave these out.  Give the titles of newspapers as they appear on the masthead of the paper, for example The Times, but Leicester Mercury.

Author, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Title, Date, Section (if relevant), p. /pp. page/pages of article.

If you are referring to a large number of historical newspapers in your work, it may be preferable to omit the author and article title from your reference.

Examples

Steve Connor, ‘Final warning on climate change: end fossil fuels by 2100’, The Independent, 3 November 2014, p.6.

'A history of Leicestershire in 100 Objects: number 34', Leicester Mercury, 9 November 2013, p.39.

The Times, 1 August 1923, p.9.

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Online resources

If you are referencing eBooks or electronic journal articles that look like the printed equivalents (for example, have individual pages, set out in the same way as in printed sources) reference them in the same way as print books and journal articles, including all the same information.

For other online sources, follow the examples below.  Include the shortest possible web address that will take you directly to the source, in angled brackets.  Give the date you accessed the source in square brackets.

Webpages

Author, Title, Date of publication <web address> [accessed date accessed].

Example

Jenny Scott, New history curriculum threatens museums, 2014 < http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-28461034> [accessed 12 November 2014].

Blogs

Author, ‘Title of blog post’, Title of blog, Date of publication <web address> [accessed date accessed].

Example

Gail Marshall, ‘Tackling gender inequality on stage needs to go further than female Hamlets’, The Conversation, 2014 <https://theconversation.com/tackling-gender-inequality-on-stage-needs-to-go-further-than-female-hamlets-31268> [accessed 4 November 2014].

Twitter

Author, Date <web address of Twitter feed> [accessed date accessed].

Example

David Wilson Library, 23 January 2015 <https://twitter.com/uoldwl> [accessed 27 January 2015].

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Archives and Manuscripts

Precise and consistent citation helps to demonstrate that research work is based on documentary evidence. It is also crucial to allow other researchers to identify the source, verify information or take any initial research forward.  This information can be found in the catalogue entry for the individual archive or, in the case of uncatalogued material, seek advice from the archivist at the repository which holds the archive.

There are three key components to a citation relating to an archival source:

Name of Institution, | Catalogue Reference | Internal Identifier. | ‘Description of Item’

  1. Name of the institution responsible for the custody of the records or catalogues, e.g., University of Leicester: Archives and Special Collections
  2. Catalogue reference: the alphanumeric code used to identify, describe and order the record, e.g., MS237/1/2/1/1. Please italicise this component of the citation.  Use MS for single manuscripts, and MSS for multiple manuscripts.
  3. Internal identifier: details of the folio, page, docket, membrane or other number, e.g., pp.24-26. Use f. (or ff. plural) to refer to specific folio sheets. Please italicise this component of the citation.

  • For additional clarity, include a brief description of the item, e.g., ‘Scrapbook containing theatre programmes, articles and review of ‘Entertaining Mr Sloane’, collected and compiled by Joe Orton’.  Adding the date is a useful extra component.

Examples

British Library, MS48927 ff.1-54. 'D'Abernon Papers, internal embassy memoranda at Berlin, 1920-5'.

The National Archives, FO 1060/262. 'Documents submitted to the Council of Enquiry on Restitution'.

University of Leicester: Archives and Special Collections, MS29. 'Philip Doddridge letter to Samuel Clarke, 19 April 1750'.

University of Leicester: Archives and Special Collections, MS237/1/2/1/1 pp.24-26. ‘Scrapbook containing theatre programmes, articles and review of ‘Entertaining Mr Sloane’, collected and compiled by Joe Orton, 1964-1967’.

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Documents in published editions

For references to original documents within books follow the same rules as for referencing a book, but add in the additional information below on the document.

Document author, ‘Document title’, Document date, in Book Author, Book title (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication), p. page number of document/pp. page numbers of document.

Examples

'Proceedings of the third conference of Hythe', 1920, in Rohan Butler and J P T Bury (eds), Documents on British foreign policy 1919-39, first series volume 8 (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1958), pp.709-55.

William Morris, ‘The manifesto of the Socialist League’, 1885, in Josephine M. Guy (ed.), The Victorian age: an anthology of sources and documents (London: Routledge, 1998), pp.193-6.

Pope John Paul II, 'Pope John Paul II speaks in Victory Square Warsaw', 1979, in Gale Stokes (ed.), From Stalinism to Pluralism: a documentary history of Eastern Europe since 1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp.200-203.

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Documents in online databases

Document author, ‘Document title’, Document date, in Database name <> [date accessed].

Example

Wendy Cope, ‘The squirrel and the crow’, 2001, in Literature Online <http://literature.proquest.com/> [accessed 12 November 2014].

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Official documents

Official documents include publications produced by governments and official bodies.

Document author, Document title (Place of publication: Publisher (if applicable), year of publication).

Example

University College Leicester, Annual report and accounts 1936 (Leicester, 1936).

Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Report under the Public Libraries and Museums Act 1964 for 2012/13: A report presented to parliament pursuant to section 17 of the Public Libraries and Museums Act 1964 (London, 2013).

For references to UK parliamentary debates (Hansard), follow the example below. For House of Commons debates, begin your reference with HC Parliamentary Debates, for House of Lords debates, begin your reference with HL Parliamentary Debates.

HC or HL Parliamentary Debates, date of debate, series number, volume number, col. column number or cols. column numbers.

Example

HC Parliamentary Debates, 27 July 1897, series 4, 51, cols. 1221-2.

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Paintings/Drawings

 Name of Artist, Title of Art Work [Medium] (Location: Date). 

 Example

Leonardo da Vinci, La Gioconda [Oil on poplar wood panel]. The Louvre, Paris. 1503-1506.

Exhibitions

To refer to a specific exhibition label or text panel within an exhibition, give the title of the label or panel in single speech marks, then 'in', then the full reference for the exhibition.

Exhibition title [exhibition].  Location.  Date(s).

Example

100 stories of migration [exhibition]. University of Leicester, Leicester. 24 June 2014-13 February 2015.

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Leaflets and pamphlets

If you are unable to find all the information you need for your reference, refer to the Missing information section.

Author, Title (Place of publication, Year).

Examples

University of Leicester David Wilson Library, Special collections (Leicester, [n. d.]).

Science Museum, Science Museum Map ([n.pl.], [n.d.]).

George Fox, Surely the magistrates of Nottingham are blinde (London, 1659).

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Personal communications

You must seek permission if you wish to refer to personal or private correspondence that has been sent to you.

For posts on online discussion boards, follow the example reference for Blogs.

Type of communication from author of communication to name of recipient, date.

Example

Email from Joseph Bloggs to author, 9 November 2014.

If you want to reference letters that have been published in collections, follow the Documents in Published Editions guidelines.  If you want to reference original letters held in Archives, refer to the Manuscript guidelines.

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Interviews

Interviewee, interview by interviewer, recording medium, location, date, where held (if appropriate).

For interviews broadcast on television or radio, see Television or radio broadcasts.

Example

Blanche Edith Harrison, interview by P. Saunders, tape, Leicester, 16 June 1988, East Midlands Oral History Archive (EMOHA).

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Lectures

Name of lecturer, ‘Title of lecture’, lecture delivered at name of institution (Date of lecture).

Example

C. Dodds Pennock, ‘The “expansion” of Europe’, lecture delivered at the University of Leicester (22 November 2007).

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Course materials

Author of materials, 'Title of materials', Module code: Module Title.  Institution, date.

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Book and film reviews

Books reviews within journals follow a similar format to referencing journal articles, but include review in square brackets after the author’s name and the full reference of the book reviewed.

Author of review [review], ‘Full reference of the book reviewed’, Journal Title, Volume number no.Issue number (Year), pp.pages of article.

Example

Kate Tiller [review], ‘Christopher Dyer et al (eds), New directions in local history since Hoskins (Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2011)’, Economic History Review, 65 no.4 (2012), pp.1572-4.

Film review within newspapers follow a similar format to referencing newspaper articles, but include review in square brackets after the author's name and the full reference of the film reviewed.

Author of review [review], ‘Full reference of the film reviewed’, Newspaper Title, Date. p. page of article.

Example

Peter Bradshaw [review], Amazing Grace [film] dir. by. Michael Apted (Momentum Pictures, 2006), Guardian, 23 March 2007. p. 10.

For an online newspaper with no page numbers:

Author of review [review], ‘Full reference of the film reviewed’, Newspaper Title, Date. < web address > [accessed dd month year].

Example

Lee Jasper [review], Amazing Grace [film] dir. by. Michael Apted (Momentum Pictures, 2006), Evening Standard, 22 March 2007. < http://www.standard.co.uk/goingout/film/amazing-grace-or-disgrace-7169498.html > [accessed 6 May 2016].

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Religious texts

If you want to reference a specific edition of a religious text, include the full publication details as for a book.

If you are referencing a specific chapter and verse from the Bible, include this information in your reference.

Title, section.

Example

Bible, Isaiah 22, 5.

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Theses and dissertations

If a thesis or dissertation is available online (in a Research Archive, for example) include the web address and date accessed in your reference.

Author, ‘Title of thesis or dissertation’ (unpublished level thesis, Name of University, Year).

Examples

L A Parker, ‘Enclosure in Leicestershire : 1485-607’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Leicester, 1948).

Ruth Ashton, ‘Disabled domesticity: representations of domesticity in nineteenth-century literature’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Leicester, 2014) <http://hdl.handle.net/2381/29150> [accessed 28 November 2014].

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Audio-visual materials

Include the type of material in your reference in square brackets, for example [DVD], [film], [music recording]

Music or speech recordings

Composer/author, Title [material type], Artist/Orchestra/Composer (Recording Company, CD reference, Date).

Example

Dylan Thomas, Under Milk Wood [voice recording], read by Richard Burton, Hugh Griffith and Mervyn Johns (BBC, 2013).

Films

If you are referring to films from more than one country in your work, include the name of the country in your reference before the name of the distributors.

Title [film], dir. by Director (Name of Distributors, Year).

Example

Casablanca [film], dir. by Michael Curtiz (USA: Warner Brothers, 1943).

Television or radio broadcasts

Give the time of transmission, if relevant.  To reference an interview broadcast on television or radio, give the name of the interviewee, followed by 'interviewed by' and the name of the interviewer at the start of your reference.

‘Title of Programme’, Title of series [television programme or radio programme] Broadcaster, Date of Broadcast.

Example

‘Growing Up’, Life Story [television programme] BBC, 30 October 2014.

Harriet Harman, interviewed by Emily Maitlis, Newsnight [television programme] BBC, 11 February 2015.

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Bibliographies

For guidance on the format of your bibliography, please refer to your department.  They may require you to submit a reference list (which includes only those references you have referred to in the text of your work) or a full bibliography (which includes references for all of the material you have used in writing your work).  Your department may also require you to split your bibliography into different sections based on type of resource.

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Help and Training

We run a Footnote referencing workshop approximately once a semester.  The two hour session is run by a librarian, and it provides an introduction to footnote referencing, and an opportunity to practise your referencing skills. Copies of the footnote referencing workshop slides are available to download from Slideshare.

If you have a question about referencing, please contact a librarian via librarians@le.ac.uk or 0116 252 2055.  You can also book an individual or group appointment with a librarian using Book a Librarian.

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