Replacement, Refinement and Reduction - 3Rs

The University of Leicester is committed to the principles of the 3R’s (Replacement, Refinement and Reduction) thereby ensuring ethical use of animals, better scientific output and enhanced animal welfare.

Replacement of 'protected' animals (all living vertebrates except humans) in research with alternative techniques, lower species, or avoiding animal use altogether.

Refinement of scientific procedures to minimise animal suffering, enhancing welfare of animals throughout their lives in the animal house, as well as research situations.

Reduction of the number of animals used by obtaining more information from the same number of animals, or the same amount of information from fewer animals

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Division of Biomedical Services
University of Leicester

University Road



Tel: +44 (0) 116 252 5288

Dr Neil Dear