Jennifer Humphreys

Jennifer Humphreys (Graduate Teaching Assistant)

Supervisors: Dr Jacqueline Sanchez Taylor and Mr John Williams


  • BA in Criminology: First Class with Honours (University of Leicester)
  • MSc in Social Research: Merit (University of Leicester)

Contact details:


Office telephone: 011-6223-1085

Research interests:

The policing of the UK indoor sex industry under the Policing and Crime Act 2009.

Research questions:

  • What is the current local policy of the selected counties for policing the local indoor sex industry?
  • What are the social, cultural, political and economic factors that impact on policing the indoor sex industry under the Policing and Crime Act 2009?
  • Are there key differences in the way two constabularies police this activity and if so what are the possible sources of these differences?
  • How does police training of new recruits and existing officers on questions of sexuality and the laws on prostitution and human trafficking influence the way in which the Policing and Crime Act 2009 is policed locally?


This research is a comparative study aimed at evaluating the way in which two British police constabularies, with very different local contexts and demographics, police human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation within indoor sex establishments (brothels, saunas, massage parlours) under section 14 of the Policing and Crime Act (PCA) 2009.

I am conducting semi-structured, in depth interviews with key officers (junior and senior) who have been involved in policing such issues. The interviews will enable me to explore the officers' individual experiences surrounding the workability of the strict liability offence (s.14 of the PCA 2009). This offence has caused much controversy since its implementation on the 1st April 2010, particularly surrounding its workability and its non-negotiable criminalisation of male clients if caught in flagrante delicto paying for sexual services with a woman who is being sexually exploited (including girls under the age of 16, trafficked women, and women being controlled for gain by a partner, drug dealer, pimp etc).

I am also conducting observation on two levels. Firstly, to gather 'office' data on the dimensions and character of the county's sex industry. This information will typically include the location and size of the ‘red light district’, the number of known indoor sex establishments (i.e. brothels, massage parlours), number of known migrant workers within the local sex industry, learning the constabulary's policing and informal policies surrounding prostitution, numbers of known trafficking/sexual exploitation cases within the county and local policing procedure on dealing with these cases, and numbers of those cautioned and/or gone through the court process under section 14 of the PCA 2009.

The second phase of observation will be focused on the police training sessions around prostitution, sexual exploitation and trafficking. This will allow analysis of the extent to which the new recruits, and existing officers, are trained to deal with the above issues and through interviewing, how this has influenced and shaped the way in which they view such issues at the local level and how it has prepared them to police these issues on a day-to-day basis.

Key literature:

Doezema, J. (2010) Sex Slaves and Discourse Masters: The Construction of Trafficking. Zed Books: London.

Ericson, R. V. and Haggerty, K. D (1997) Policing the Risk Society. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

Garland, D. (2001) The Culture of Crime: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Monzini, P. (2005) Sex Traffic: Prostitution, Crime and Exploitation. Zed Books: London.

Phoenix, J. (2009) Regulating Sex for Sale. Polity Press: Bristol.

Stephens, M. and Becker, S. (1994) Police Force, Police Service: Care and Control in Britain. Macmillan: Basingstoke.

Westmarland, L. (2001) Gender and Policing: Sex, Power and Police Culture. Willan: Cullompton.

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