Dr Patrick White

Dr Patrick WhiteAssociate Professor

BSc (Bristol), PGCE[FE] (Wales), DipRes (Wales), PhD (Wales)

Room: Bankfield House 3.14
Tel: +44 (0)11-6223-1450
Email: patrick.white@le.ac.uk

Personal details

BSc (Bristol), PGCE[FE] (Wales), DipRes (Wales), PhD (Wales)






  • White, P. (2017) Developing Research Questions (2nd Edn.) (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • White, P. (2009) Developing Research Questions: A Guide for Social Scientists (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • White, P. (2007) Education and Career Choice: A New Model of Decision Making (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  • Gorard, S., See, B.H., Smith, E. and White, P. (2006) Teacher Supply: The Key Issues (London: Continuum).

Journal articles

  • Smith, E. and White, P. (in press) 'Moving along the STEM pipeline? The long-term employment patterns of Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths graduates in the United Kingdom', Research Papers in Education. DOI: 10.1080/02671522.2020.1849374.
  • Smith, E. and White, P. (2019) 'Where do all the STEM graduates go? Higher education, the labor market and career trajectories in the United Kingdom', Journal of Science Education and Technology. 28, pp. 26-40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-018-9741-5
  • White, P. and Gorard, S. (2017) 'Against inferential statistics: how and why current statistics teaching gets it wrong.', The Statistics Education Research Journal. 16(1), Special Issue on Statistical Literacy. Available online: https://goo.gl/8Ugrwq
  • Gorard, S. and White, P. (2017) 'Still against inferential statistics: a reply to Nicholson and Ridgway', The Statistics Education Research Journal. 16(1), Special Issue on Statistical Literacy. Available online: https://goo.gl/oe2d2g
  • Smith, E. and White, P., (2016): A ‘great way to get on’? The early career destinations of science, technology, engineering and mathematics graduates, Research Papers in Education, 32(2), pp. 231-253. DOI: 10.1080/02671522.2016.1167236
  • Smith, E. and White, P. (2015) 'What Makes a Successful Undergraduate? The relationship between student characteristics, degree subject and academic success at university', 41(4), pp. 686-708. British Educational Research Journal. Available online. DOI: 10.1002/berj.3158.
  • White, P. (2014) A Response to Gorard: The widespread abuse of statistics by researchers: What is the problem and what is the ethical way forward?', The Psychology of Education Review38(1), pp. 24-28.
  • White, P. (2013) 'Who’s Afraid of Research Questions? The Neglect of Research Questions in the Methods Literature and a Call for Question-led Methods Teaching', International Journal of Research and Method in Education36(3), Special Issue: Teaching and Learning Research Methodology, pp. 213-227. <DOI:10.1080/1743727X.2013.809413>. [Click on this link for online research access via publisher]
  • White, P. and Selwyn, N. (2013) 'Moving Online? An Analysis of Patterns of Adult Internet Use in the UK, 2002 to 2010', Information, Communication and Society16(1), February, pp. 1-27. <DOI:10.1080/1369118X.2011.611816>. [Click on this link for online access via publisher]
  • White, P. (2012) 'Modelling the 'Learning Divide': Predicting Participation in Adult Learning and Future Learning Intentions, 2002 to 2010', British Educational Research Journal38(1), February, pp. 153-175, <DOI:10.1080/01411926.2010.529871>. [Click on this link for online access via publisher]
  • White, P. and Selwyn, N. (2012) 'Learning Online? Educational Internet Use and Participation in Adult Learning, 2002 to 2010', Educational Review64(4), November, pp. 451-469, <DOI:10.1080/00131911.2011.626123>. [Click on this link for online access via publisher]
  • Smith, E. and White, P. (2011) 'Who is Studying Science? The Impact of Widening Participation Policies on the Social Composition of UK Undergraduate Science Programmes', Journal of Education Policy26(5), pp. 677-699, <DOI:10.1080/02680939.2010.540676>. [Click on this link for online access via publisher]
  • Gorard, S., See, B.H., Smith, E. and White, P.(2007) 'What Can We Do to Strengthen the Teacher Workforce?', International Journal of Lifelong Education26(4), pp. 419-437.
  • White, P. (2007) 'Choosing at School: A Model of Decision-making Behaviour within Compulsory Education', Evaluation and Research in Education20(1), pp. 32-52.
  • White, P., Gorard, S.and See, B.H. (2006) 'What Are the Problems with Teacher Supply?', Teaching and Teacher Education22, pp. 315-326.
  • White, P. and Smith E. (2005) 'What Can PISA Tell Us About Teacher Shortages?', European Journal of Education40(1), pp. 92-112.
  • See, B.H., Gorard, S., White, P. and Roberts, K. (2004) 'Teacher Demand: Crisis, What Crisis?', Cambridge Journal of Education, 34(1), pp. 103-123.
  • White, P., Gorard, S., Fitz, J. and Taylor, C. (2001) 'Regional and Local Differences in Admission Arrangements', Oxford Review of Education27(3), pp. 317-337.
  • White, P.(2001) 'A Review of Educational Research in Wales', The Welsh Journal of Education10(2), pp. 105-110.
  • White, P.and Gorard, S. (1999) 'Ethnicity, Attainment and Progress: A Cautionary Note Regarding Percentages and Percentage Points', Research in Education62, pp. 66-69.

Book chapters

  • White, P.(2016) 'Research Questions in Education Research: their neglect, role and development', in Wyse, D. et al. (Eds.) The BERA/Sage Handbook of Educational Research. London: Sage.
  • White, P.(2002) 'They Told Me I Couldn't Do That: Ethical Issues of Intervention in Careers Education and Guidance Research', in Welland, Trevor and Pugsley, Lesley (eds.) Ethical Dilemmas in Educational Research, Cardiff Papers in Qualitative Research (Aldershot: Ashgate), chapter 3, pp. 32-41. [Click on this link for more information via publisher]

Official reports and related publications

  • Smith, E. and White, P. (2018) The employment trajectories of Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics graduates. Full Report. Executive Summary.
  • Smith, E. and White, P. (2012) A critique of DFE Research Report DFE-RR149 PISA 2009 Study: How big is the gap? A comparison of pupil attainment in England with the top performing countries (NASUWT).
  • White, P. and Smith, E. (2003) Teacher Shortages, Turnover and Morale: An International Analysis of their Perceived Impact on Student Learning (London: UCET). [Click this link to go to UCET]
  • White, P. and Welland, T. (2003) The Ethnic Minority Population of Monmouthshire: Analysis of Secondary Data and Exploratory Fieldwork (Cwmbran: Monmouthshire County Council).
  • White, P., See, B.H., Gorard, S. and Roberts, K. (2003) Teacher Recruitment and Retention in Wales (Cardiff: General Teaching Council Wales). [Click this link to download as PDF]
  • Gorard, S., See, B.H. and White, P. (2003) 'Teacher Supply and Retention', submission to House of Commons Select Committee Inquiry into Teacher Retention.
  • Furlong, J. and White, P. (2001) Educational Research Capacity in Wales: A Review (Cardiff: Cardiff University/UCET).

Other publications

  • White, P. (2006) 'Crisis, What Crisis? Research and Education', Sociology Review16(2), pp. 8-11.
  • White, P. (2005) 'Heads Crisis Case Unproven', Times Educational Supplement, 30 September, p. 26.
  • White, P. (2004) 'Quality Counts: The Use of Numbers in Social Research', Sociology Review14(2), pp. 14-16.
  • White, P. (2004) 'Missing Comparators', letter to Significance, September 2004 issue.
  • White, P., Gorard, S., See, B.H. and Roberts, K. (2003) 'Review of Teacher Recruitment, Supply and Retention in Wales', School of Social Sciences Working Papers Series Number 41, Cardiff University. [101 pages, ISBN 1 904815 01 4]
  • White, P., Taylor, C. and Gorard, S. (2002) 'Building Research Capacity', Learning and Skills Research Nework5(3), Summer, p. 53.
  • Fitz, J., Taylor, C., Gorard, S. and White, P. (2001) 'Local Educational Authorities and the Regulation of Educational Markets: Four Case Studies', Occasional Paper 41, School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University. [48 pages, ISBN 1 872330 46 0]
  • White, P., Gorard, S. and Fitz, J. (1999) 'An Analysis of Local School Admission Arrangements', School of Social Sciences Working Paper Series Number 35, Cardiff University. [23 pages, ISBN 1 872330 26 6]
  • White, P. , Gorard, S. and Fitz, J. (1999) 'The New Legislation on School Admissions', School of Social Sciences Working Paper Number 32, Cardiff University. [17 pages, ISBN 1 872330 29 0]


My empirical work has primarily focused on issues in education and training, and I have conducted research in the following areas: Student decision-making in compulsory schooling; teacher recruitment, retention and morale; educational markets and segregation; determinants of lifelong learning; patterns of internet use; participation in higher education; and the supply of science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) workers.

I have spent several years working on projects designed to enhance research capacity and retain a keen interest in research methods. I am particularly interested in: the formulation of research questions; the use of large-scale secondary data sets; and statistical modelling.

Current research projects

I am currently working on three funded research projects:

  • The Employment Trajectories of STEM Graduates (Nuffield Foundation, £46,214)
  • Evaluation of the 'Youth United' Social Action Trial (Education Endowment Foundation, £101,879)
  • Evaluation of the 'Children's University' Social Action Trial  (Education Endowment Foundation, £152,484)


I am interested in supervising postgraduate students in the area of educational participation and inequality. I have particular expertise in the following areas: Education and career choice; further and higher education; lifelong learning; and education, training and the labour market. I am especially interested in supervising studies using large-scale secondary data sources and mixed methods approaches.

Find out more about applying for a PhD


YouTube SPSS video tutorials

I have made some YouTube videos to introduce students to conducting basic statistical analyses using the SPSS software package. They can be viewed here.

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Contact Details

School of Media, Communication and Sociology

Campus based courses
E: mcs-enquiries@le.ac.uk
T: +44(0)116 252 3863

Distance Learning Courses
E: css-dl@le.ac.uk
T: 0116 252 3755

Research degrees (campus-based and distance learning courses)
T: +44(0)116 252 2785
E: MCS-Research@le.ac.uk

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