Leicester Judgment and Decision Making Research Group

Research Summary

Research in the multi-disciplinary Leicester Judgment and Decision Making research group includes formal models, laboratory and field experiments, agent-based simulations of judgment and decision making in artificial and everyday situations, including in the workplace, and the impact of individual differences and social contexts on these processes. Members of the group aim to carry out excellent research, to produce publications in high-impact journals, and to bid for grants in the research areas such as those listed among the current research themes below.

Judgment and Decision Making Lab in the School of Psychology Click here

See our seminar series times and dates.                         Photos of the group.


Academic staffResearch students





Some current research themes

Research themes

Advice giving and taking
Agency and structure effects on beliefs and behaviour
Agent-based simulation
Ambiguity aversion
Bargaining Games and Verifiable Information
Behavioural economics
Causal and counterfactual thinking in children and adults
Centipede games
Communication and perception of confidence
Consumption and regulation

Decidability and undecidability
Emotions and regulation
Evolution of cooperation
Experimental games
Frugal heuristics in judgment and decision making
Game theory
Mental accounting
Quantum decision theory
Retail crime and loss prevention
Social decisions: networks and innovations
Team reasoning


Recent research grants

Tarrant, C., Colman, A. M., Chattoe-Brown, E., Jenkins, D., Perera, N., & Mehtar, S. £205,582 (£246,677 FEC) awarded by the Economic and Social Research Council to study "Antimicrobial resistance as a social dilemma: Implications for developing interventions to reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for acute medical patients in hospital settings internationally".

Pulford, B.D., Colman, A.M. & Frosch, C.A. (2016-2021) £10,000 awarded by the Leicester Judgment and Decision Making Endowment to fund the "LJDME Sluckin Studentship Award".

Pulford, B.D., Colman, A.M. & Frosch, C.A. (2016-2018) £26,039 (£134,293 FEC) awarded by the Leicester Judgment and Decision Making Endowment to study "Comparisons, Confidence, and Causality in Decision Making".

Frosch, C. A., (2013-2014). £2,500 awarded by the Experimental Psychology Society, Small Grants Scheme to study “Counterfactual Thinking and Regulatory Focus in Self/Other Decision Making”

Pulford, B. D. & Colman A.M. (2011-2016). £100,000 awarded by the Leicester Judgment and Decision Making Endowment Fund for research into "Coordination, Judgment, and Decision Making".

Gold, N., Colman, A. M., & Pulford, B. D. (2010–12). £151,216 awarded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council for a study of “Framing Effects in Ethical Dilemmas”. (Grant No. AH/H001158/1)

Dambacher, M. (2011-2012). €113,000 awarded by the Zukunftskolleg at the University of Konstanz, Germany for the project "Towards a time course of decision making: Incentive-based effects on electrophysiological correlates of selective attention"

Baker, R., Mellon, J., Colman, A. M., Steward, W., Kockelbergh, R., Sinfield, P., Tarrant, C., Crosbee, L.,& Sproston, K. (2004-2007). £347,291 awarded by the NHS Service Delivery and Organisation National R&D Programme for research into “Prostate Cancer Care: Improving Measures of Patient Experience".

Colman, A. M., & Pulford, B. D. (2009). £7,272 awarded by the Nuffield Foundation Social Sciences Small Grants Scheme for a study of “Evolution of Cooperation Through Similarity Recognition”.

Gilbert, N., & Chattoe-Brown, E. (2008-2011). £1.3m awarded by the Economic and Social Research Council for "SIMIAN (Simulation Innovation: a Node)".

Randall, R., & Pulford, B. D. (2007-2008). £6,587 awarded by the British Academy for “An Examination of the Domain-specificity and Predictive Validity of Confidence Measures”.

Colman, A. M. (2005-2006). £2,600 awarded by the Royal Society of Edinburgh to study “Evolution of Cooperation Through Coordinated Turn-Taking”.

Bolger, F., & Gillett, R. T. (2004-2006). £47,125 awarded by the Economic and Social Research Council for research into “News, Mood and Consumer Confidence”.

Colman, A. M., & Al-Nowaihi, A. (2004-2005). £12,054 awarded by the British Academy Larger Research Grants Scheme to study “Cooperation in Multi-Player Minimal Social Situations: An Experimental Investigation”.

Colman, A. M., Pulford, B. D., & Bolger, F. (2003-2005).£121,563 awarded by the Economic and Social Research Council for research into “Confidence in Interactive Decisions”.

Egan, S. M., & Frosch, C. A. (2010). €905 awarded by Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Seed Funding Scheme for "Counterfactual thinking and enablers".

Egan, S. M., & Frosch, C. A. (2012). €1,101 awarded by Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Seed Funding Scheme for "The influence of cognitive factors in health related decision making".

Frosch, C. A. (2007). £85,556.80 (£104,264 FEC) awarded by the Economic and Social Research Council for a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship on "Cognitive processes in causal and counterfactual thinking".

Pulford, B. D. (2002-2005). £21,000 awarded by the University of Wolverhampton Studentship Fund for a postgraduate studentship on "The Communication and Influence of Confidence and Uncertainty"

Washington, R. Downing. T. E., Haxeltine, A., Bithell, M., New, M., & Chattoe, E. (2002-2005). £205,000 awarded by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.


Selected recent research papers

Aerts, D., d’Hooghe, B., & Haven, E. (2010). Quantum experimental data in psychology and economics. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 49(12), 2971-2990.

al-Nowaihi, A., & Dhami, S. (2015). Evidential Equilibria: Heuristics and Biases in Static Games of Complete Information. Games, 6, 637-677.

al-Nowaihi, A., & Dhami, S. (2012). Hyperbolic Punishment Functions. Review of Law and Economics, 8(3), 759-787.

Álvarez-Mozos, M., Hellman, Z., & Winter, E. (2013). Spectrum value for coalitional games. Games and Economic Behavior Elsevier, 82, 132-142.

Beaman, C.P., Smith, P. T., Frosch, C.A., & McCloy, R. (2010). Less-is-more effects without the recognition heuristic. Judgment and Decision Making, 5, 258-271.

Beck, A. (2011). Self-scan checkouts and retail loss: Understanding the risk and minimising the yhreat. Security Journal, 24(3), 199-215.

Beck, A., & Palmer W. (2011). The importance of visual situational cues and difficulty of removal in creating deterrence: The limitations of electronic article surveillance source tagging in the retail environment. Journal of Applied Security Research, 6(1), 110-123.

Bolger, F., Pulford, B. D., & Colman, A. M. (2008). Market entry decisions: Effects of absolute and relative confidence. Experimental Psychology, 55(2), 113-120.

Chattoe-Brown, E. (2009). The Social transmission of choice: A simulation with applications to hegemonic discourse. Mind and Society, 8(2), 193-207.

Chattoe-Brown, E. (2012). Combining ethnography and game theory using simulation: A critique and development of "Can Norms Account for Strategic Interaction?" by S. Gezelius, Sociology, 46(2), 339-353.

Chattoe-Brown, E. (2014). Using agent based modelling to integrate data on attitude change. Sociological Research Online, 19(1).

Chattoe-Brown, E. (2013). Why sociology should use agent based modelling. Sociological Research Online, 18(3).

Chattoe, E. & Gilbert, N. (2001). Understanding consumption: What interviews with retired households can reveal about budgetary decisions. Sociological Research Online, 6(3), November.

Coleman, A. A., Colman, A. M., & Thomas, R. M. (1990). Cooperation without awareness: A multiperson generalization of the minimal social situation. Behavioral Science, 35, 115-121.

Colman, A. M., Browning, L., & Pulford, B. D. (2012). Spontaneous similarity discrimination in the evolution of cooperation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 299, 162-171.

Colman, A. M., Körner, T. W., Musy, O., & Tazdaït, T. (2011). Mutual support in games: Some properties of Berge equilibria. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 55, 166-175.For more publications or full CV, use the panel on the left.

Colman, A. M., Pulford, B. D., & Lawrence, C. L. (2014). Explaining strategic coordination: Cognitive hierarchy theory, strong Stackelberg reasoning, and team reasoning. Decision, 1, 35-58.

Colman, A. M., Pulford, B. D., Omtzigt, D., & al-Nowaihi, A. (2010). Learning to cooperate without awareness in multiplayer minimal social situations. Cognitive Psychology, 61, 201-227.

Dambacher, M., & Hübner, R. (2013). Investigating the speed-accuracy tradeoff: Better use deadlines or response signals? Behavior Research Methods, 45, 702-717.

Dambacher, M., & Hübner, R. (2015). Time pressure affects the efficiency of early perceptual processing in decisions under conflict. Psychological Research, 79, 83-94.

Dambacher, M., Hübner, R., & Schlösser, J. (2011). Monetary incentives in speeded perceptual decision: Effects of penalizing errors versus slow responses. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 248, 1-12.

David, M., Rohloff, A., Petley, J. & Hughes, J. (2011). The idea of moral panic: Ten dimensions of dispute. Crime, Media, Culture, 7(3), 215–228.

Dhami, S., & al-Nowaihi, A. (2013). An extension of the Becker Proposition to non-expected utility theory. Mathematical Social Sciences, 65(1) 10-20.

Dhami, S., & al-Nowaihi, A. (2010). The existence of a Condorcet winner when voters have other regarding preferences. Journal of Public Economic Theory, 12(5), 897-922.

Dzhafarov, E., Haven, E., Khrennikov, A., & Sozzo, S. (2015). Editors of the Special issue: ‘Quantum Theory: from Foundations to Technologies’. Journal of Mathematical Psychology. Forthcoming.

Eso, P., & Wallace, C. (2014). Information and evidence in bargaining. Economic Theory Bulletin, 2(1), 23-32.

Frosch, C.A., Beaman, C.P. & McCloy, R. (2007). A little learning is a dangerous thing: An experimental demonstration of ignorance-driven inference. ,The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 6(10), 1329-1336.

Frosch, C.A. & Byrne, R.M.J. (2012). Causal conditionals and counterfactuals. Acta Psychologica. 141, 54-66.

Frosch, C. A., McCormack, T., Lagnado, D. A. and Burns, P. (2012). Are Causal Structure and Intervention Judgments Inextricably Linked? A Developmental Study. Cognitive Science. 36, 261-285.

Frosch, C. A. & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2011). Is everyday causation deterministic or probabilistic? Acta Psychologica. 137, 280 - 291.

Gold, N., Colman, A. M., & Pulford, B. D. (2014). Cultural differences in responses to real-life and hypothetical trolley problems. Judgment and Decision Making, 9(1), 65-76.

Gold, N., Pulford, B. D., & Colman, A. M. (2013). Your money or your life: Comparing judgments in trolley problems involving economic and emotional harms, injury and death. Economics and Philosophy, 29, 213-233.

Gold, N, Pulford, B. D., & Colman, A. M. (2015). Do as I say, don’t do as I do: Differences in moral judgments do not translate into differences in decisions in real-life trolley problems. Journal of Economic Psychology, 47, 50–61.

Griffiths, A. W., Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Taylor, P. J., & Tai, S. (2014). The prospective role of defeat and entrapment in depression and anxiety: A 12-month longitudinal study. Psychiatry Research, 216, 52-59.

Hargreaves Heap, S., Arjona, D. R., & Sugden, R. (2014). How portable is Level-0 behaviour? A test of Level-k theory in games with non-neutral frames. Econometrica 82, 3,1133-1151.

Haven E. (2005). The financial relevance of fuzzy stochastic dominance: A brief note. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 15(3), 467-473.

Haven, E. (2008). Private Information and the ‘Information function. Theory and Decision, 64(2-3), 193-228.

Haven, E., & Khrennikov, A. (2013). Quantum-like tunnelling and levels of arbitrage. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 52, 4083-4099.

Hughes, J. (2014). E-cigarettes and the "civilising" of smoking. Cambio, 4(7), 169–181.

Janczyk, M., Dambacher, M., Bieleke, M., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2015). The benefit of no choice: Goal-directed plans enhance perceptual processing. Psychological Research, 79, 206-220.

Jones, S. A. M., & Thomas, R. M. (2013). Formal languages, word problems of groups and decidability. In P. A. Abdulla & I. Potapov (Eds.), Reachability problems ( (LNCS 8169, pp. , 146-158). Uppsala, Sweden: Springer-Verlag.

Jugureanu, A., Hughes, J., & Hughes, K. (2014). Towards a developmental sociology of happiness. Sociological Research Online, 19(2), 2. http://www.socresonline.org.uk/19/2/2.html

King, S. A. (1999). Chance, choice and calculation in the process of getting married. International Review of Social History, 44, 69-76.

King, S. A., & Shephard, M. (2012). Courtship and the remarrying man in late-Victorian England. Journal of Family History, 37, 319-40.

Krockow, E. M., Pulford, B. D., & Colman, A. M. (2015). Competitive Centipede games: Zero-end payoffs and payoff inequality deter reciprocal cooperation. Games, 6(3), 262–272.

Lakin, S. R., &Thomas, R. M. (2004). Context-sensitive decision problems in groups. In C. S. Calude, E. Calude, & M. J. Dinneen (Eds.), Developments in language theory ( LNCS 3340, pp. , 296-307). Auckland, New Zealand: Springer-Verlag.

Lakin, S. R., & Thomas, R. M. (2009). Complexity classes and word problems of groups. Groups, Complexity and Cryptography 1, 261-273.

McCloy, R., Beaman, C.P., Frosch, C.A., & Goddard, K. (2010). Fast and frugal framing effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition. 36(4), 1043-1052.

Myatt, D., & Wallace, C. (2008). An evolutionary analysis of the volunteer's dilemma. Games and Economic Behavior, 62(1), 67-76.

Myatt, D., & Wallace, C. (2009). "Evolution, teamwork and collective action: Production targets in the private provision of public goods. The Economic Journal, 119(534), 61-90.

Pulford, B. D. (2009). Is luck on my side? Optimism, pessimism, and ambiguity aversion. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(6), 1079-1087.

Pulford, B. D., & Colman, A. M. (2008). Size doesn't really matter: Ambiguity aversion in Ellsberg urns with few balls. Experimental Psychology, 55(1), 31-37.

Pulford, B. D., Colman, A. M., & Lawrence, C. L. (2014). Strong Stackelberg reasoning in symmetric games: An experimental replication and extension. PeerJ, 2:e263.

Rapoport, A., Seale, D. A., & Colman, A. M. (2015). Is tit-for-tat the answer? On the conclusions drawn from Axelrod’s tournaments. PLOS ONE, 10(7), e0134128.

van Damme, E., Binmore, K. G.. Roth, A., Samuelson, L., Winter, E., Bolton, G. E, Ockenfels, A., Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., Gneezy, U., & Kocher, M. G. (2014). How Werner Güth's ultimatum game shaped our understanding of social behaviour. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 108, 292-318.

Wallace, C., & Young, H. P. (2015). Stochastic evolutionary game dynamics. In H. P. Young and S. Zamir (Eds), The Handbook of Game Theory (Vol. 4, chap. 6, pp. 327-380). North Holland, Amsterdam.

Winter, E (2004). Incentives and discrimination. American Economic Review, 94(3), 764-773.

Winter, E. (2009). Incentive reversal. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 1(2), pages 133-147.

Winter, E., Rapoport, A., & Seale, D. A. (2000). An experimental study of coordination and learning in iterated two-market entry games. Economic Theory, 16(3), 661-687.

Ziegelmeyer. A., Koessler, F., Bracht, J., & Winter, E. (2010). Fragility of information cascades: An experimental study using elicited beliefs. Experimental Economics, 13(2), 121-145.

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