P. B. Howes, S. Rhead, M. Roy, C. L. Nicklin, J. L. Rawle, and C. A. Norris. Silicon sigma 13(501) grain boundary interface structure determined by bicrystal bragg rod x-ray scattering. Acta Materialia, 61:5694-5701, Sep 2013. [ DOI ]

Jonathan Grigg, Ananth Tellabati, George D. D. Jones, and Paul Howes. Dna damage of macrophages induced by metal nanoparticulates using an air-liquid interface exposure model. Nanotoxicology, 7:961-962, Aug 2013. [ DOI ]

Chris Binns, Muhammad T. Qureshi, Davide Peddis, Stephen H. Baker, Paul B. Howes, Adrian Boatwright, Stuart A. Cavill, Sarnjeet S. Dhesi, Leonardo Lari, Roland Kroeger, and Sean Langridge. Exchange bias in fe@cr core-shell nanoparticles. Nano Letters, 13:3334-3339, Jul 2013. [ DOI ]


Chris Binns, Pilar Prieto, Stephen Baker, Paul Howes, Ruggero Dondi, Glenn Burley, Leonardo Lari, Roland Kroeger, Andrew Pratt, Sitki Aktas, and John K. Mellon. Preparation of hydrosol suspensions of elemental and core-shell nanoparticles by co-deposition with water vapour from the gas-phase in ultra-high vacuum conditions. Journal Of Nanoparticle Research, 14, Sep 2012. [ DOI ]


Zeina Hashim, Philip Howes, and Mark Green. Luminescent quantum-dot-sized conjugated polymer nanoparticles-nanoparticle formation in a miniemulsion system. Journal Of Materials Chemistry, 21:1797-1803, 201 2011. [ DOI ]


K. von Haeften, C. Binns, A. Brewer, O. Crisan, P. B. Howes, M. P. Lowe, C. Sibbley-Allen, and S. C. Thornton. A novel approach towards the production of luminescent silicon nanoparticles: sputtering, gas aggregation and co-deposition with h(2)o. European Physical Journal D, 52:11-14, Apr 2009. [ DOI ]

Jens B. Simonsen, Kristian Kjaer, Paul Howes, Kasper Norgaard, Thomas Bjornholm, Niels Harrit, and Bo W. Laursen. Close columnar packing of triangulenium ions in langmuir films. Langmuir, 25:3584-3592, Mar 2009. [ DOI ]

J. L. Rawle and P. B. Howes. Modelling x-ray scattering from quantum dots using keating energy-minimised structures. European Physical Journal-Special Topics, 167:47-52, Feb 2009. [ DOI ]

Jonathan Grigg, Ananth Tellabati, Stephen Rhead, Gabriela M. Almeida, Jennifer A. Higgins, Karen J. Bowman, George D. Jones, and Paul B. Howes. Dna damage of macrophages at an air-tissue interface induced by metal nanoparticles. Nanotoxicology, 3:348-354, 200 2009. [ DOI ]


C. Binns, P. B. Howes, S. H. Baker, H. Marchetto, A. Potenza, P. Steadman, S. S. Dhesi, M. Roy, M. J. Everard, and A. Rushforth. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy. Journal Of Physics-Condensed Matter, 20, Feb 2008. [ DOI ]


Simon G. Alcock, C. L. Nicklin, P. B. Howes, C. A. Norris, R. N. Kyutt, N. S. Sokolov, and N. L. Yakovlev. Atomic structure of caf2/mnf2-si(111) superlattices from x-ray diffraction. Applied Surface Science, 253:3991-3999, Feb 2007. [ DOI ]


JL Rawle, PB Howes, and SG Alcock. Crystal truncation rod measurements from buried quantum dots. Surface Review And Letters, 10:525-531, Apr 2003. [ DOI ]


M Weygand, K Kjaer, PB Howes, B Wetzer, D Pum, UB Sleytr, and M Losche. Structural reorganization of phospholipid headgroups upon recrystallization of an s-layer lattice. Journal Of Physical Chemistry B, 106:5793-5799, Jun 2002. [ DOI ]

KYc Lee, A Gopal, A von Nahmen, JA Zasadzinski, J Majewski, GS Smith, PB Howes, and K Kjaer. Influence of palmitic acid and hexadecanol on the phase transition temperature and molecular packing of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-choline monolayers at the air-water interface. Journal Of Chemical Physics, 116:774-783, Jan 2002. [ DOI ]


N Reitzel, T Hassenkam, K Balashev, TR Jensen, PB Howes, K Kjaer, A Fechtenkotter, N Tchebotareva, S Ito, K Mullen, and T Bjornholm. Langmuir and langmuir-blodgett films of amphiphilic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene: New phase transitions and electronic properties controlled by pressure. Chemistry-A European Journal, 7:4894-4901, Nov 2001. [ DOI ]

H Rapaport, I Kuzmenko, S Lafont, K Kjaer, PB Howes, J Als-Nielsen, M Lahav, and L Leiserowitz. Cholesterol monohydrate nucleation in ultrathin films on water. Biophysical Journal, 81:2729-2736, Nov 2001. [ bib ]

KYc Lee, J Majewski, TL Kuhl, PB Howes, K Kjaer, MM Lipp, AJ Waring, JA Zasadzinski, and GS Smith. Synchrotron x-ray study of lung surfactant-specific protein sp-b in lipid monolayers. Biophysical Journal, 81:572-585, Jul 2001. [ bib ]

I Kuzmenko, M Kindermann, K Kjaer, PB Howes, J Als-Nielsen, R Granek, G von Kiedrowski, L Leiserowitz, and M Lahav. Crystalline films of interdigitated structures formed via amidinium-carboxylate interactions at the air-water interface. Journal Of The American Chemical Society, 123:3771-3783, Apr 2001. [ DOI ]


R Edgar, JY Huang, R Popovitz-Biro, K Kjaer, WG Bouwman, PB Howes, J Als-Nielsen, YR Shen, M Lahav, and L Leiserowitz. Absolute orientation of molecules of amphiphilic alcohols in crystalline monolayers at the air-water interface. Journal Of Physical Chemistry B, 104:6843-6850, Jul 2000. [ DOI ]

K Lederer, A Godt, PB Howes, K Kjaer, J Als-Nielsen, M Lahav, G Wegner, L Leiserowitz, and I Weissbuch. Crystalline self-assembly into monolayers of folded oligomers at the air-water interface. Chemistry-A European Journal, 6:2173-2183, Jun 2000. [ bib ]

G Charlton, PB Howes, CA Muryn, H Raza, N Jones, JSg Taylor, C Norris, R Mcgrath, D Norman, TS Turner, and G Thornton. Copper interface induced relaxation of tio2(110)-1x1. Physical Review B, 61:16117-16120, Jun 2000. [ DOI ]

I Weissbuch, PNw Baxter, I Kuzmenko, H Cohen, S Cohen, K Kjaer, PB Howes, J Als-Nielsen, JM Lehn, L Leiserowitz, and M Lahav. Oriented crystalline monolayers and bilayers of 2 x 2 silver(i) grid architectures at the air-solution interface: Their assembly and crystal structure elucidation. Chemistry-A European Journal, 6:725-734, Feb 2000. [ DOI ]

S Weichel, F Grey, K Rasmussen, M Nielsen, R Feidenhans'l, PB Howes, and J Vedde. Fusion bonding of si wafers investigated by x ray diffraction. Applied Physics Letters, 76:70-72, Jan 2000. [ DOI ]

KYc Lee, J Majewski, A von Nahmen, A Gopal, PB Howes, K Kjaer, GS Smith, and JA Zasadzinski. Influence of palmitic acid and hexadecanol on the phase transition temperature and molecular packing of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-choline monolayers at the air-water interface. Biophysical Journal, 78:327A-327A, Jan 2000. [ bib ]

M Weygand, M Schalke, PB Howes, K Kjaer, J Friedmann, B Wetzer, D Pum, UB Sleytr, and M Losche. Coupling of protein sheet crystals (s-layers) to phospholipid monolayers. Journal Of Materials Chemistry, 10:141-148, 200 2000. [ DOI ]


M Nielsen, R Feidenhans'l, PB Howes, J Vedde, K Rasmussen, M Benamara, and F Grey. The interface structure in directly bonded silicon crystals studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Surface Science, 442:L989-L994, Nov 1999. [ DOI ]

M Berfeld, I Kuzmenko, I Weissbuch, H Cohen, PB Howes, K Kjaer, J Als-Nielsen, L Leiserowitz, and M Lahav. Use of diastereomeric interactions to probe the inplane attachment of water-soluble molecules to the polar head groups of langmuir films of cu-alpha-amino acid complexes. Journal Of Physical Chemistry B, 103:6891-6899, Aug 1999. [ DOI ]

SAw Verclas, PB Howes, K Kjaer, A Wurlitzer, M Weygand, G Buldt, NA Dencher, and M Losche. X-ray diffraction from a single layer of purple membrane at the air/water interface (vol 287, pg 837, 1999). Journal Of Molecular Biology, 291:507-507, Aug 1999. [ DOI ]

DR Greve, N Reitzel, T Hassenkam, J Bogelund, K Kjaer, PB Howes, NB Larsen, M Jayaraman, RD Mccullough, and T Bjornholm. Directed self-assembly of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes on the nanometer scale. Synthetic Metals, 102:1502-1505, Jun 1999. [ DOI ]

SAw Verclas, PA Howes, K Kjaer, A Wurlitzer, M Weygand, G Buldt, NA Dencher, and M Losche. X-ray diffraction from a single layer of purple membrane at the air/water interface. Journal Of Molecular Biology, 287:837-843, Apr 1999. [ DOI ]

KA Edwards, PB Howes, JE Macdonald, T Hibma, T Bootsma, and MA James. Observation of a structural transition during the low-temperature growth of the si(111)7x7-pb interface. Surface Science, 424:169-178, Apr 1999. [ DOI ]

H Rapaport, HS Kim, K Kjaer, PB Howes, S Cohen, J Als-Nielsen, MR Ghadiri, L Leiserowitz, and M Lahav. Crystalline cyclic peptide nanotubes at interfaces. Journal Of The American Chemical Society, 121:1186-1191, Feb 1999. [ DOI ]

VM Kaganer, G Brezesinski, H Mohwald, PB Howes, and K Kjaer. Positional order in langmuir monolayers: An x-ray diffraction study. Physical Review E, 59:2141-2152, Feb 1999. [ DOI ]

M Weygand, B Wetzer, D Pum, UB Sleytr, N Cuvillier, K Kjaer, PB Howes, and M Losche. Bacterial s-layer protein coupling to lipids: X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies. Biophysical Journal, 76:458-468, Jan 1999. [ bib ]

KYc Lee, J Majewski, K Kjaer, P Howes, MM Lipp, AJ Waring, and JA Zasadzinski. Incorporation of lung surfactant specific protein sp-b into lipid monolayers at the air-fluid interface: A synchrotron x-ray study. Biophysical Journal, 76:A216-A216, Jan 1999. [ bib ]


VM Kaganer, G Brezesinski, H Mohwald, PB Howes, and K Kjaer. Positional order in langmuir monolayers. Physical Review Letters, 81:5864-5867, Dec 1998. [ DOI ]

G Brezesinski, F Bringezu, G Weidemann, PB Howes, K Kjaer, and H Mohwald. Influence of head group methylation on the phase behavior of lipid monolayers. Thin Solid Films, 327:256-261, Aug 1998. [ DOI ]

I Weissbuch, M Lahav, L Leiserowitz, K Lederer, A Godt, G Wegner, PB Howes, K Kjaer, and J Als-Nielsen. Molecules adopting an inverted u-shape on the water surface by self-assembling into crystalline monolayers. Journal Of Physical Chemistry B, 102:6313-6317, Aug 1998. [ DOI ]

T Bjornholm, DR Greve, N Reitzel, T Hassenkam, K Kjaer, PB Howes, NB Larsen, J Bogelund, M Jayaraman, PC Ewbank, and RD Mccullough. Self-assembly of regioregular, amphiphilic polythiophenes into highly ordered pi-stacked conjugated polymer thin films and nanocircuits. Journal Of The American Chemical Society, 120:7643-7644, Aug 1998. [ DOI ]

G Brezesinski, VM Kaganer, H Mohwald, and PB Howes. Structure of octadecanol monolayers: An x-ray diffraction study. Journal Of Chemical Physics, 109:2006-2010, Aug 1998. [ DOI ]

PB Howes, M Benamara, F Grey, R Feidenhansl, M Nielsen, FB Rasmussen, and J Baker. An x-ray diffraction study of direct-bonded silicon interfaces: A model semiconductor grain boundary. Physica B, 248:74-78, Jun 1998. [ DOI ]

C Dewolf, F Bringezu, G Brezesinski, H Mohwald, P Howes, and K Kjaer. Binary phase diagram of monolayers of simple 1,2-diol derivatives. Physica B, 248:199-203, Jun 1998. [ DOI ]

I Weissbuch, PNw Baxter, S Cohen, H Cohen, K Kjaer, PB Howes, J Als-Nielsen, GS Hanan, US Schubert, JM Lehn, L Leiserowitz, and M Lahav. Self-assembly at the air-water interface. in-situ preparation of thin films of metal ion grid architectures. Journal Of The American Chemical Society, 120:4850-4860, May 1998. [ DOI ]

C Dewolf, G Brezesinski, G Weidemann, H Mohwald, K Kjaer, and PB Howes. Influence of temperature on the phase behavior of 1,2-diol derivatives. Journal Of Physical Chemistry B, 102:3238-3242, Apr 1998. [ DOI ]

C Lautz, TM Fischer, M Weygand, M Losche, PB Howes, and K Kjaer. Determination of alkyl chain tilt angles in langmuir monolayers: A comparison of brewster angle autocorrelation spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Journal Of Chemical Physics, 108:4640-4646, Mar 1998. [ DOI ]

SAw Verclas, PB Howes, K Kjaer, A Frenzen, M Weygand, G Buldt, NA Dencher, and M Losche. Gixd from purple membrane at the air/water interface. Biophysical Journal, 74:A374-A374, Feb 1998. [ bib ]

PB Howes, KA Edwards, JE Macdonald, T Hibma, T Bootsma, MA James, and CL Nicklin. The atomic structure of the si(111)-pb buried interface grown on the si(111)-(root 3 x root 3)-pb reconstruction. Surface Review And Letters, 5:163-166, Feb 1998. [ DOI ]

S Lafont, H Rapaport, GJ Somjen, A Renault, PB Howes, K Kjaer, J Als-Nielsen, L Leiserowitz, and M Lahav. Monitoring the nucleation of crystalline films of cholesterol on water and in the presence of phospholipid. Journal Of Physical Chemistry B, 102:761-765, Jan 1998. [ DOI ]

I Weissbuch, S Guo, R Edgar, S Cohen, P Howes, K Kjaer, J Als-Nielsen, M Lahav, and L Leiserowitz. Oriented crystalline thin films of tetracosanedioic acid and its metal salts at the air-aqueous solution interface. Advanced Materials, 10:117-+, Jan 1998. [ DOI ]


H Rapaport, I Kuzmenko, K Kjaer, P Howes, W Bouwman, J Alsnielsen, L Leiserowitz, and M Lahav. Structural characterization of valinomycin and nonactin at the air-solution interface by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Journal Of The American Chemical Society, 119:11211-11216, Nov 1997. [ DOI ]

D Schmicker, T Hibma, KA Edwards, PB Howes, JE Macdonald, MA James, M Breeman, and GT Barkema. Low-temperature growth of thin pb layers and the quantum size effect. Journal Of Physics-Condensed Matter, 9:969-980, Feb 1997. [ DOI ]

G Charlton, PB Howes, CL Nicklin, P Steadman, JSg Taylor, CA Muryn, SP Harte, J Mercer, R Mcgrath, D Norman, TS Turner, and G Thornton. Relaxation of tio2(110)-(1x1) using surface x-ray diffraction. Physical Review Letters, 78:495-498, Jan 1997. [ DOI ]


HA vandervegt, WJ Huisman, PB Howes, TS Turner, and E Vlieg. Surfactants used in ag(111) homoepitaxy: Sb, in, pt and o-2. Surface Science, 365:205-211, Sep 1996. [ DOI ]

AH Levermann, PB Howes, KA Edwards, HT Anyele, CC Matthai, JE Macdonald, R Feidenhansl, L Lottermoser, L Seehofer, G Falkenberg, and RL Johnson. The atomic structure of the si(111) (2 root 3x2 root 3)r30 degrees-sn reconstruction. Applied Surface Science, 104:124-129, Sep 1996. [ DOI ]

CL Nicklin, C Norris, P Steadman, JSg Taylor, and PB Howes. The growth of sm on mo(110) studied by surface x-ray diffraction. Physica B, 221:86-89, Apr 1996. [ DOI ]

KA Edwards, PB Howes, JE Macdonald, T Hibma, T Bootsma, and MA James. The growth and atomic structure of the si(111)7x7-pb buried interface. Physica B, 221:201-204, Apr 1996. [ DOI ]


PB Howes, KA Edwards, DJ Hughes, JE Macdonald, T Hibma, T Bootsma, and MA James. A surface x-ray-diffraction study of the si(111)-pb-buried interface. Surface Science, 331:646-650, Jul 1995. [ DOI ]

PB Howes, KA Edwards, DJ Hughes, JE Macdonald, T Hibma, T Bootsma, and MA James. Influence of interfacial atomic-structure on the schottky-barrier height of si(111)-pb. Physical Review B, 51:17740-17743, Jun 1995. [ DOI ]

HA Vandervegt, WJ Huisman, PB Howes, and E Vlieg. The effect of sb on the nucleation and growth of ag on ag(100). Surface Science, 330:101-112, Jun 1995. [ DOI ]


MS Finney, C Norris, PB Howes, MA James, JE Macdonald, AD Johnson, and E Vlieg. The growth and atomic-structure of the si(111)-indium interface studied by surface x-ray-diffraction. Physica B, 198:246-248, Apr 1994. [ DOI ]


PB Howes, C Norris, MS Finney, E Vlieg, and RG Vansilfhout. Structure of ge(111)root-3x-root-3r30-degrees-au determined by surface x-ray-diffraction. Physical Review B, 48:1632-1642, Jul 1993. [ DOI ]

MS Finney, C Norris, PB Howes, RG Vansilfhout, GF Clark, and JMc Thornton. An x-ray-diffraction study of the si(111)(root-3x-root-3)r30-degrees indium reconstruction. Surface Science, 291:99-109, Jul 1993. [ DOI ]


MS Finney, C Norris, PB Howes, and E Vlieg. The growth of indium on the si(111) surface studied by x-ray reflectivity and auger-electron spectroscopy. Surface Science, 277:330-336, Oct 1992. [ DOI ]

RG Vansilfhout, M Lohmeier, S Zaima, JF Vanderveen, PB Howes, C Norris, JMc Thornton, and AA Williams. Structure determination of the ge(111)-2 x 1-sb surface using x-ray-diffraction. Surface Science, 271:32-44, May 1992. [ DOI ]

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