Dr Frank Proudlock

Dr Frank Proudlock

Associate Professor in Ophthalmology

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour
University of Leicester
Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building
Level 5
Leicester Royal Infirmary
Leicester, LE2 7LX

Tel: +44 (0)116 252 5818

Email: fap1@le.ac.uk


General enquiries: email Mrs Sam Kerr on sjb28@le.ac.uk Group Secretary, or telephone +44 (0)116 252 3152.

Personal details

  • BSc in Neuroscience University of Glasgow 1990-1993
  • MSc in Bioengineering University of Strathclyde in Glasgow 1994
  • PhD University of Leicester 1995-1999

I became interested in the eyes and brain after studying Neuroscience (BSc) at the University of Glasgow from 1989-1992. This was followed by studies in Bioengineering (MSc) at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow in 1993 where I became interested in the interface between engineering and neuroscience.

Between 1995 and 2000, I researched into the sensory control of movement in the hand following peripheral nerve injury which led to my PhD being awarded by the University of Leicester in 2000.

Since 2000, I have been researching into the visual control of eye movements in the Ophthalmology group in the University of Leicester. My technical knowledge has complemented the clinical expertise of Professor Irene Gottlob to help establish Leicester as an international centre for research and treatment into nystagmus.

Since 2014, I have been a senior lecturer in the ophthalmology group where I have led, amongst other things, investigations into visual system deficits in albinism, the impact of reading in nystagmus and development of new treatments in visual system disease.

I also have an active teaching role where I contribute to the degree courses in biological sciences and medicine. I supervise a number of postgraduate research students, including PhD, MD and intercalated BSc students.


Papers before 2006

Sachdev A, Proudlock FA, Abbott R, Gottlob I. Kjellin syndrome: first case with retinal changes in carriers. Neurology. 2005 Oct 11;65(7):1110.

Thomas S, Farooq SJ, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. Vertical deviation exacerbated by convergence and accommodation. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005 Oct;89(10):1371-2.

Thomas S, Critchley P, Lawden M, Farooq S, Thomas A, Proudlock FA, Constantinescu CS, Gottlob I. Stiff person syndrome with eye movement abnormality, myasthenia gravis, and thymoma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Jan;76(1):141-2.

Valmaggia C, Proudlock F, Gottlob I. Asymmetry of the optokinetic nystagmus in lesion of the central nervous system. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 2005 Mar;222(3):191-5.

Valmaggia C, Proudlock F, Gottlob I. Look and stare optokinetic nystagmus in healthy subjects and in patients with no measurable binocularity. A prospective study. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 2005 Mar;222(3):196-201.

Awan M, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. A randomized controlled trial of unilateral strabismic and mixed amblyopia using occlusion dose monitors to record compliance. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Apr;46(4):1435-9.

Valmaggia C, Rütsche A, Baumann A, Pieh C, Bellaiche Shavit Y, Proudlock F, Gottlob I. Age related change of optokinetic nystagmus in healthy subjects: a study from infancy to senescence. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Dec;88(12):1577-81.

Proudlock FA, Shekhar H, Gottlob I. Age-related changes in head and eye coordination. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Nov-Dec;25(10):1377-85.

Farooq SJ, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. Torsional optokinetic nystagmus: normal response characteristics. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Jun;88(6):796-802.

Gottlob I, Awan M, Proudlock F. The role of compliance in 2 vs 6 hours of patching in children with amblyopia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Mar;122(3):422-3;

Proudlock FA, Shekhar H, Gottlob I. Coordination of eye and head movements during reading. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jul;44(7):2991-8.

Proudlock FA, Scott J. Tremor in the human hand following peripheral nerve transection and reinnervation. Brain Res. 2003 Nov 7;989(2):238-45.

Valmaggia C, Proudlock F, Gottlob I. Optokinetic nystagmus in strabismus: are asymmetries related to binocularity? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Dec;44(12):5142-50.

Papers 2014-2006

Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. Mechanisms underlying Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome. Curr Opin Neurol. 2014 Feb;27(1):83-91.

Kanonidou E, Gottlob I, Proudlock FA. The effect of font size on reading performance in strabismic amblyopia: an eye movement investigation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Jan 23;55(1):451-9.

Pradeep A, Proudlock FA (co-first author), Awan M, Bush G, Collier J, Gottlob I.  An educational intervention to improve adherence to high dosage patching regimen for amblyopia: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2014 Mar 10.  (in Press).

Pilat AV, Proudlock FA, Mohammad S, Gottlob I. Normal Macular Structure Measured with Optical Coherence Tomography across Ethnicity. Br J Ophthalmol 2014 Feb 11.  (In Press).

Jayaramachandran P, Proudlock FA (co-first author), Odedra N, Gottlob I, McLean RJ. A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Soft Contact Lens and Rigid Gas Permeable Lens Wearing in Infantile Nystagmus. Ophthalmology. (in Press).

Pilat A, Gottlob I, Sheth V, Thomas MG, Proudlock FA. Gender and Ethnicity related difference on Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Asian and Caucasian Participants. Neuro-ophthalmology (in Press).

Helena L, Proudlock FA (co-first author), Gottlob I. Is Hand-Held Optical Coherence Tomography Reliable in Infants and Young Children with and without Nystagmus? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.  2013 Dec 17;54(13):8152-9.

Lee H, Sheth V, Bibi M, Maconachie G, Patel A, McLean RJ, Michaelides M, Thomas MG, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. Potential of Handheld Optical CoherenceTomography to Determine Cause of Infantile Nystagmus in Children by Using Foveal Morphology. Ophthalmology. 2013 Dec;120(12):2714-24.

Barot N, McLean RJ, Gottlob I, Proudlock FA. Effect of Coloured Overlays on Reading Performance in Infantile Nystagmus. Ophthalmology. 2013 Dec 3. pii: S0161-6420(13)00951-2.

Pilat AV, Proudlock FA, Kumar P, Lee H, Papageorgiou E, Gottlob I. Macular Morphology in Patients with Optic Nerve Head Drusen and Optic Disc Edema. Ophthalmology 2013 Nov 14. pii: S0161-6420(13)00882-8.

Thomas S, Thomas MG, Andrews C, Chan WM, Proudlock FA, McLean RJ, Pradeep A, Engle EC, Gottlob I. Autosomal-dominant nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and presenile cataract associated with a novel PAX6 mutation. Eur J Hum Genet. 2013 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Sheth V, Gottlob I, Mohammad S, McLean RJ, Maconachie GD, Kumar A, Degg C, Proudlock FA. Diagnostic Potential of Iris Cross-sectional Imaging in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct;120(10):2082-90.

Knapp CM, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. OKN asymmetry in human subjects: a literature review. Strabismus. 2013 Mar;21(1):37-49.

Barot N, McLean RJ, Gottlob I, Proudlock FA. Reading performance in infantile nystagmus. Ophthalmology. 2013 Jun;120(6):1232-8.

Roberts EO, Proudlock FA (co-first author), Martin K, Reveley MA, Al-Uzri M, Gottlob I. Reading in schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives. Schizophr Bull. 2013 Jul;39(4):896-907.

Thomas MG, Kumar A, Thompson JR, Proudlock FA, Straatman K, Gottlob I. Is high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography reliable in nystagmus? Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Apr;97(4):534-6.

McLean RJ, Gottlob I, Proudlock FA. What we know about the generation of nystagmus and other ocular oscillations: are we closer to identifying therapeutic targets? Curr Neurol Neurosci 2012 Jun;12(3):325-33.

Thomas MG, Gottlob I, McLean RJ, Maconachie G, Kumar A, Proudlock FA. Reading Strategies in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Proudlock FA, Gottlob I.  Foveal development and nystagmus. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 2011 (in Press)

Mohammad S, Gottlob I, Kumar A, Thomas M, Degg C, Sheth V, Proudlock FA. The Functional Significance of Foveal Abnormalities in Albinism Measured Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Ophthalmology. 2011 May 11 Epub

Thomas MG, Kumar A, Mohammad S, Proudlock FA, Engle EC, Andrews C, Chan WM, Thomas S, Gottlob I. Structural Grading of Foveal Hypoplasia Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography A Predictor of Visual Acuity? Ophthalmology. 2011 Apr 28 Epub

Pieh C, Proudlock F, Gottlob I. Smooth pursuit in infants: maturation and the influence of stimulation. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011 Apr 11 Epub

Kumar A, Gottlob I, McLean RJ, Thomas S, Thomas M, Proudlock FA. Clinical and Oculomotor Characteristics of Albinism Compared to FRMD7 Associated Infantile Nystagmus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr 8 52 5 2306-13

Thomas MG, Kumar A, Kohl S, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. High-Resolution In Vivo Imaging in Achromatopsia. Ophthalmology. 2011 May 118 5 882-7

Kanonidou E, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. Reading strategies in mild to moderate strabismic amblyopia: an eye movement investigation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jul 51 7 3502-8

Awan M, Proudlock F, Grosvenor D, Choudhuri I, Sarvananthan N, Gottlob I. An Audit of the Outcome of Amblyopia Treatment: A retrospective analysis of 322 children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010 Aug 94 8 1007-11

Knapp CM, Gottlob I, McLean RJ, Rafelt S, Proudlock FA. Effect of distance upon horizontal and vertical look and stare OKN. J Vis. 2009 Nov 30 9 12 23.1-9

Sarvananthan N, Surendran M, Roberts E, Jain S, Thomas S, Shah N, Proudlock FA, Thompson JR, McLean RJ, Degg C, Woodruff G, Gottlob I. The prevalence of nystagmus: The Leicestershire nystagmus survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Nov 50 11 5201-6

Kumar A, Sarvananthan N, Proudlock F, Thomas M, Roberts E, Gottlob I. Asperger syndrome associated with idiopathic infantile nystagmus--a report of 2 cases. Strabismus. 2009 Apr-Jun;17(2):63-5.

Knapp CM, Gottlob I, McLean RJ, Rajabally YA, Abbott RJ, Rafelt S, Proudlock FA. Vertical optokinetic nystagmus in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009 Jul 30;24(10):1533-8.

Kumar A, Thomas S, McLean R, Proudlock FA, Roberts E, Boggild M, Gottlob I. Treatment of acquired periodic alternating nystagmus with memantine: a case report. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2009 Mar-Apr;32(2):109-10.

Thomas S, Proudlock FA, Sarvananthan N, Roberts EO, Awan M, McLean R, Surendran M, Kumar AS, Farooq SJ, Degg C, Gale RP, Reinecke RD, Woodruff G, Langmann A, Lindner S, Jain S, Tarpey P, Raymond FL, Gottlob I. Phenotypical characteristics of idiopathic infantile nystagmus with and without mutations in FRMD7. Brain. 2008 May;131(Pt 5):1259-67. Epub 2008 Mar 27.

Pradeep A, Thomas S, Roberts EO, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. Reduction of congenital nystagmus in a patient after smoking cannabis. Strabismus. 2008 Jan-Mar;16(1):29-32.

Farooq SJ, Gottlob I, Benskin S, Proudlock FA. The effect of aging on torsional optokinetic nystagmus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Feb;49(2):589-93.

Knapp CM, Gottlob I, McLean RJ, Proudlock FA. Horizontal and vertical look and stare optokinetic nystagmus symmetry in healthy adult volunteers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Feb;49(2):581-8.

Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. Physiology and pathology of eye-head coordination. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2007 Sep;26(5):486-515. Epub 2007 Apr 14. Review.

McLean R, Proudlock F, Thomas S, Degg C, Gottlob I. Congenital nystagmus: randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of memantine/gabapentin. Ann Neurol. 2007 Feb;61(2):130-8.

Sarvananthan N, Proudlock FA, Choudhuri I, Dua H, Gottlob I. Pharmacologic treatment of congenital nystagmus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jun;124(6):916-8.

Shery T, Proudlock FA, Sarvananthan N, McLean RJ, Gottlob I. The effects of gabapentin and memantine in acquired and congenital nystagmus: a retrospective study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;90(7):839-43. Epub 2006 Mar 23.

Rahman W, Proudlock F, Gottlob I. Oral gabapentin treatment for symptomatic Heimann-Bielschowsky phenomenon. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jan;141(1):221-2.

Proudlock FA, Khanna A, Gottlob I. Filling-in along horizontal and vertical meridians. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jan;47(1):453-60.

Book chapters

Proudlock FA (2012) Design and Outcome Measures in Treatment Studies for Nystagmus In “Challenging Nystagmus”. Editors Gottlob I & Harris CM. Clyvedon Press, Cardiff, UK

Proudlock FA and Gottlob I (2011) Nystagmus Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (4th Edition). Eds Taylor D. and Hoyt CS. Elsevier B.V., Kidlington, UK.

Proudlock FA and Gottlob I (2010) Chapter 47: Nystagmus. In Ocular Disease: Mechanisms and Management. Eds. Levin and Albert (Elsevier Inc, in press)

Proudlock FA, Jorgensen AY and Gottlob I (2008) Perceptual fading during voluntary and involuntary eye movements from Advances in Understanding Mechanisms and Treatment of Infantile Forms of Nystagmus (2008) Eds.RJ Leigh and M W Devereaux (Oxford University Press)

Kumar A, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I (2010) Management of congenital nystagmus with and without strabismus from Progress III, Strabismus, of the Springer Series Essentials of Ophthalmology. Eds.B Lorenz and M Brodsky (Springer, in press)

Proudlock FA (2008) Perceptual fading during voluntary and involuntary eye movement. In “Advances in Understanding Mechanisms and Treatment of Infantile forms of Nystagmus”,Editor R. John Leigh, M.D., Oxford University Press. pp 42-44.


My current research interests include:

Collaborators and research funding


University of Leicester:

  • Medical Physics - Christopher Degg, Glen Bush, Julie Wooldridge
  • Psychology - Phil Duke, Claire Hutchinson
  • Psychology - Mohammed Al-Uzri, Mike Reveley
  • Neurology - Yusuf Rajabally
  • Cardiology - David Adlam, Shiju Joseph
  • Ophthalmology - Theo Empeslidis
  • Neonatology - Joe Fawke

Other collaborators:

  • Annegret Dahlman-noor (Moorfields Eye Hospital, London)
  • Christina Pieh (University of Freiburg)
  • Jacqueline Collier (University of East Anglia)
  • Christophe Valmaggia (St Gallen)
  • Robert Dineen, Chris Tench and Cris Constantinescu (University of Nottingham)
  • MERZ pharmaceutical

Research funding

  • Ulverscroft Foundation
  • Action Medical Research
  • Medical Research Council
  • Nystagmus Network
  • College of Optometrists
  • Medisearch
  • National Eye Research Centre
  • Fight for Sight
  • The Children’s Research Fund
  • University of Leicester (UHL) NHS Trust
  • Ormsby Charitable Trust

Read more about Research in Ophthalmology at Leicester.


Current students:


  • Tu Zhanhan
  • Sarim Mohammad
  • Viral Sheth
  • Rebecca McLean
Co-supervision of:
  • Samira Anwar
  • Ravi Purohit
  • Helena Lee
  • Gail Maconachie


  • Anil Kumar

Intercalated BSc:

  • Mansha Seewoodharry



  • Anastasia Pilat
  • Mervyn Thomas
  • Shegufta Farooq
  • Mazz Awan


  • Archana Pradeep
  • Nagini Sarvananthan
  • Evgenia Kanonidou
  • Christopher Knapp

Intercalated BSc:

  • Vijay Patel
  • Rebecca Annis
  • Niraj Barot
  • Pavitra Jayaramachandran
  • Sarim Mohammad
  • Mervyn Thomas
  • Astrid Jorgensen
  • Thomas Sanctuary
  • Aman Khanna
  • Himanshu Shekhar
  • Mark Jesky

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Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour
University of Leicester
University Road

T: +44 (0)116 252 2922
E: npbenquiries@le.ac.uk


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