Dr Raul Carstocea

Honorary Fellow in Modern European History

Dr Raul CarstoceaContact Details

Personal Details

I hold a BA degree with a double major, in History and Political Science / International Relations from the American University in Bulgaria, an MA degree in Politics and Administration from the University of Bologna, Italy, and an MA degree in Nationalism Studies from the Central European University, Hungary. I completed my PhD at University College London in 2011, with a thesis that examined the role of anti-Semitism in the ideology of Romania’s interwar fascist movement.
After completing my PhD, I worked as Teaching Fellow at University College London until 2012, when I moved to Vienna to take up a research fellowship at the Vienna Wiesenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies. From 2013 to 2017, I worked as Senior Research Associate and Head of the ‘Conflict & Security’ Research Cluster at the European Centre for Minority Issues, Flensburg, Germany, while also teaching history and politics as Associate Lecturer at the Europa University Flensburg. From 2017, I have been Lecturer in European Studies at the Europa University Flensburg, and in 2018 I received a research fellowship at the Imre Kértesz Kolleg, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
I was appointed Lecturer in Modern European History at the University of Leicester in 2019.


My teaching focuses on the intellectual, cultural and conceptual history of Central and Eastern Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries, with an emphasis on state formation and nation-building processes, nationalism, anti-Semitism, fascism, and the Holocaust.



Peasants into Fascists: Anti-Semitism and Fascism in the Ideology of the Legionary Movement in Interwar Romania (Routledge, forthcoming).
Modern Antisemitisms in the Peripheries: Europe and its Colonies, 1880-1945 (co-edited with Éva Kovács) (Vienna, 2019).

Journal articles and book chapters

Historicising the Normative Boundaries of Diversity: The Minority Treaties of 1919 in a Longue Durée Perspective, Studies on National Movements (forthcoming).

Competing Nationalisms – Reading the History of Nationalism in South-Eastern Europe Between and Beyond the Binaries, Nations and Nationalism (forthcoming).

Bringing Out the Dead: Mass Funerals, Cult of Death and the Emotional Dimension of Nationhood in the Case of the Legionary Movement in Interwar Romania, in Maarten van Ginderachter, Xosé Núñez Seixas and Andreas Stynen (eds.), The Personal and Emotional Dimensions of Nationhood in European History (19th Century to World War II) (London, in press).

The Unbearable Virtues of Backwardness: Mircea Eliade’s Conceptualisation of Colonialism and his Attraction to Romania’s Interwar Fascist Movement, in Dorota Kołodziejczyk and Siegfried Huigen (eds.), Central Europe Between the Colonial and the Postcolonial (Basingstoke, in press).

The Centre Does Not Hold: Antisemitisms in the Peripheries between the Imperial, the Colonial and the National (co-authored with Éva Kovács), in Raul Cârstocea and Éva Kovács (eds.), Modern Antisemitisms in the Peripheries: Europe and its Colonies, 1880-1945 (Vienna, 2019), pp. 9-49.

Building a Fascist Romania: Voluntary Work Camps as a Propaganda Strategy of the Legionary Movement in Interwar Romania, Fascism Vol. 6 No. 2 (2017), pp. 163-195.

Native Fascists, Transnational Anti-Semites: The International Activity of Legionary Leader Ion I. Moţa, in Arnd Bauerkämper and Grzegorz Rossoliński-Liebe (eds.), Fascism without Borders: Connections and Cooperation between Movements and Regimes in Europe from 1918 to 1945 (New York, 2017), pp. 216-242.

Students Don the Green Shirt. The Roots of Romanian Fascism in the Anti-Semitic Student Movements of the 1920s, in Regina Fritz, Grzegorz Rossoliński-Liebe and Jana Starek (eds.), Alma Mater Antisemitica. Akademisches Milieu, Juden und Antisemitismus an den Universitäten Europas zwischen 1918 und 1939 (Vienna, 2016), pp. 39-66.

Breaking the Teeth of Time: Mythical Time and the ‘Terror of History’ in the Rhetoric of the Legionary Movement in Interwar Romania, Journal of Modern European History Vol. 13 No. 1 (2015), pp. 79-97.

Anti-Semitism in Romania: Historical Legacies, Contemporary Challenges, ECMI Working Paper #81 (2014), pp. 1-39.

Path to the Holocaust: Fascism and Anti-Semitism in Interwar Romania, S:I.M.O.N. (Shoah: Intervention, Methods, Documentation), Vol. 1 No. 1 (2014), pp. 43-53.

European History of Minority Relations, in Tove H. Malloy (ed.), Minority Issues in Europe: Rights, Concepts, Policy (Berlin, 2013), pp. 27-49.

Uneasy Twins? The Entangled Histories of Jewish Emancipation and Anti-Semitism in Romania and Hungary, 1866-1913, Slovo Vol. 21 No. 2 (2009), pp. 64-85.

Heirs of the Archangel? The ‘New Right’ Group and the Development of the Radical Right in Romania, eSharp, Special Issue: Reaction and Reinvention: Changing Times in Central and Eastern Europe (2008), pp. 22-48.

A Marginal Group on Europe’s Margin? Anti-Semitism in Romania from the Congress of Berlin to the ‘Legion of the Archangel Michael’, in Silviu Miloiu, Ion Stanciu and Iulian Oncescu (eds.), Europe as Viewed from the Margins. An East-Central European Perspective. From World War I to Present (Târgovişte, 2008), pp. 189-201.



My PhD addressed the role of anti-Semitism in the ideology of the ‘Legion of the Archangel Michael’, Romania’s interwar fascist movement, and the role it performed as a mobilising political tool for the legionary movement. I argued that, although significantly indebted to a history of anti-Semitism in Romania before World War I, the typically fascist legionary anti-Semitism was far more comprehensive and virulent than all previous manifestations, and comparable in terms of its radicalism and centrality in the movement’s ideology with the Nazi one. At the same time, my PhD thesis showed that legionary anti-Semitism differed considerably, to the point of outright opposition, from the biological racial grounding of Nazi anti-Semitism, emphasising cultural and religious arguments and positing religion rather than biology as a criterion for exclusion. Such an interpretation contributes to a more nuanced and qualified understanding of anti-Semitism, as well as of its entanglements with other forms of exclusion, religious intolerance and othering. My first monograph, which I am currently completing and which draws on the PhD thesis, uses legionary anti-Semitism as an entry point into exploring the constellation of exclusionary narratives historically reflecting both transfers and adaptations of concepts developed in the European ‘centre’ and specificities related to distinct developmental paths.

My other research interests include:
• State formation processes and the role of alterity in negotiating definitions of ‘the national’
• Perceptions and self-perceptions of Central and Eastern Europe as a periphery in European and global history
• Transnational anti-Semitism and transnational far-right networks, historical and contemporary
• Temporalities of fascist movements and regimes
• Forms of labour (voluntary and forced) in fascist movements and regimes
• Representations of colonialism in Central and Eastern Europe
• Critical area studies (with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe)
• Psychoanalytic approaches to anti-Semitism, racism, and othering

My next research project examines interwar fascism as a global anti-universalist project, with a particular focus on fascist temporalities and their restructuring of space.



• Modern European history, especially nineteenth and twentieth century Central and Eastern Europe
• Interwar Europe
• Intellectual, cultural and conceptual history of Central and Eastern Europe
• Nationalism
• Minority rights
• Anti-Semitism
• Fascism and the Holocaust
• Romanian history

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