Dr. Fernando Soares Schlindwein

Biomedical Engineering; School of Engineering; real-time signal processing; Digital Signal Processing; Cardiac arrhythmias.

Dr Fernando SchlindweinReader in Biomedical Engineering

Honorary Reader in Cardiovascular Sciences (Medical School)


School of Engineering, Head of Biomedical Engineering Theme

Engineering Tower, Room 702
University Road
Leicester, LE1 7RH

tel: +44 (0)116 252 5053
fax:+44 (0)116 252 2619
email: fss1__at__le.ac.uk

Anti-spam measures: please replace the "_at_" with "@" on the email address (sorry for being patronising).

ORCID (public) Profile: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5981-7726

Google Scholar (public) Profile: https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?user=1DLxs7UAAAAJ&hl=en

ResearchGate (public) Profile: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fernando_Schlindwein


Personal details (and letters after my name):

BEng (Rio Grande do Sul) 1st Class Hons., MSc (Rio de Janeiro) Distinction, PhD (Surgery, Leicester), DSc (Biomedical Engineering, Rio de Janeiro), CEng (IPEM), SFHEA.


Lecturing - modules lectured by FSS:

EG7013/EG4312/EG3312 - Modelling and Classification of Data (50%, the other 50% by Rafael Molales Viviescas, who is Module convener)

EG7016/EG3322 - Discrete-Time Systems / Signal Processing I (100% - Module convener)

EG7017EG4322 - Real-time Signal Processing / Signal Processing II (100% - Module convener)



Some recent publications (full list available at Research Gate or Google Scholar):

. Joao Alexandre Lobo Marques, Paulo C. Cortez, Joao P. do V. Madeiro, Simon James Fong, Fernando S. Schlindwein and Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque, “Automatic Cardiotocography Diagnostic System based on Hilbert Transform and Adaptive Threshold Technique”, IEEE Access, April 2019.

. Frederique J. Vanheusden, Gavin S. Chu, Xin Li, João L. Salinet, Tiago P. Almeida, Nawshin Dastagir, Peter J. Stafford, G. André Ng and Fernando S. Schlindwein, “Systematic Differences of Non-Invasive Dominant Frequency Estimation Compared to Invasive Dominant Frequency Estimation in Atrial Fibrillation”, Computers in Biology and Medicine (IF: 2.115), https://www.journals.elsevier.com/computers-in-biology-and-medicine, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2018.11.017, Volume 104,  Pages 299-309, January 2019.

. Tiago P. Almeida, Fernando S Schlindwein, João L. Salinet, Xin Li, Gavin S. Chu, Jiun H. Tuan, Peter J. Stafford, G. André Ng, Diogo C. Soriano, “The temporal stability of recurrence quantification analysis attributes from chronic atrial fibrillation electrograms”, Research on Biomedical Engineering, http://www.rbejournal.org/, https://doi.org/10.1590/2446-4740.180040, vol. 34, issue 4, pp. 337-349, 3 December 2018.

. João Alexandre Lobo Marques, Paulo Cesar Cortez, João Paulo do Vale Madeiro, Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque, Simon C. Fong, Fernando S. Schlindwein, "Nonlinear Characterization and Complexity Analysis of Cardiotocographic Examinations using Entropy Measures", The Journal of Supercomputing, (IF 1.532), https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-018-2570-8, 4 September 2018.

. Ghulam Andre Ng, Amar Mistry, Xin Li, Fernando S Schlindwein, Will B Nicolson, “LifeMap - towards the development of a new technology in sudden cardiac death risk stratification for clinical use”, Europace, Volume 20, Issue FI2, Pages f162–f170, published on line 19 April 2018, https://academic.oup.com/europace, https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy080 (IF: 5.231), 1 September 2018.

. Tiago P. Almeida; Fernando S. Schlindwein; João L. Salinet; Xin Li; Gavin S. Chu; Jiun H. Tuan; Peter J. Stafford; G. André Ng; Diogo C. Soriano; “Characterization of human persistent atrial fibrillation electrograms using recurrence quantification analysis”, Chaos, (IF 2.415), http://aip.scitation.org/cha/info/focus), ISSN 1054-1500, Featured Article, August 2018.

. Ghulam Andre Ng, Amar Mistry, Xin Li, Fernando S Schlindwein, Will B Nicolson, “LifeMap - towards the development of a new technology in sudden cardiac death risk stratification for clinical use”, Europace, https://academic.oup.com/europace, https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy080 (IF: 5.231), 19 April 2018.

S SiddiquiW B NicolsonX LiR SomaniA J SandilandsP J StaffordF S SchlindweinG A Ng, “Prospective non-invasive evaluation of a novel ECG-based restitution biomarker for prediction of sudden cardiac death risk in ischaemic cardiomyopathy”, EP Europace, Volume 20, Issue suppl_1, 1 March 2018, Pages  i9, https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euy015.021 (IF: 4.52), Published: 19 March 2018.

. Xin Li, Gavin S Chu, Tiago P Almeida, João L Salinet, Nawshin Dastagir, Amar R Mistry, Zakariyya Vali, Peter J Stafford, Fernando S Schlindwein, G André Ng, “Characteristics of ablated rotors in terminating persistent atrial fibrillation using non-contact mapping”, Europace vol. 19(suppl_1):i3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/eux283.145, (IF: 4.52), 1 October 2017.

. Xin Li, Gavin S Chu, Tiago P Almeida, João L Salinet, Nawshin Dastagir, Frederique J Vanheusden, Amar R Mistry, Zakariyya Vali, Peter J Stafford, Fernando S Schlindwein, G André Ng, “Improving target identification of persistent atrial fibrillation ablation using simultaneous intracardiac mapping”, Europace 19(suppl_1):i14-i14, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/eux283.041, 5 October 2017.

. Xin Li, Gavin S Chu, Tiago P Almeida, João L Salinet, Nawshin Dastagir, Amar R Mistry, Zakariyya Vali, Peter J Stafford, Fernando S Schlindwein, G André Ng, “Characteristics of ablated rotors in terminating persistent atrial fibrillation using non-contact mapping”, Europace 19(suppl_1):i3-i3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/eux283.145, 5 October 2017.

. Tiago P. Almeida, Gavin S Chu; Xin Li, Nawshin Dastagir, Jiun H. Tuan, Peter J. Stafford, Fernando S. Schlindwein, G. André Ng, “Atrial electrogram fractionation distribution before and after pulmonary vein isolation in human persistent atrial fibrillation - a retrospective multivariate statistical analysis”, Frontiers in Physiology, section Cardiac Electrophysiology, vol. 8, Article 589, pp: 1-12, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00589 (IF: 4.134), 24 August 2017.

. S.H. Man, O. Vito, N. Dastagir, N. Dastagir, J.A. Burridge, T.P. Almeida, S. Siddiqui, GS. Chu, SS. Varanasi, SH. Chin, FS. Schlindwein, WB. Nicolson, R. Chelliah, RK. Pathmanathan, D. Chin, G.A. Ng, “Externally recorded cardiac acoustics to optimise cardiac resynchronisation therapy”, Europace (2017) 19 (suppl.3): iii384-iii385, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/eux161.064, (IF: 4.021), Published: 20 June 2017.

. Tiago P. Almeida, Gavin S. Chu, Michael J. Bell, Xin Li, João L .Salinet, Nawshin Dastagir, Jiun H. Tuan, Peter J. Stafford, Fernando S. Schlindwein, G. Andre Ng, “The temporal behavior and consistency of bipolar atrial electrograms in human persistent atrial fibrillation”, accepted by Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, (IF: 1.878), 10 June 2017. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-017-1667-1.

. J.P.V. Madeiro, E.M.B. Santos, P.C. Cortez, J.H.S. Felix, F.S. Schlindwein, “Evaluating Gaussian and Rayleigh-Based Mathematical Models for T and P-waves in ECG”, Latin America IEEE Transactions, http://www.ewh.ieee.org/reg/9/etrans/por/, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TLA.2017.7910197, Vol 15, Issue 5, pp. 843-853, May 2017.

. João L. Salinet, Fernando S. Schlindwein, Peter J. Stafford, Tiago P. Almeida, Xin Li, Frederique J. Vanheusden, María S. Guillem, G. André Ng, “Propagation of meandering rotors surrounded by high dominant frequency areas in persistent Atrial Fibrillation”, Heart Rhythm, (IF: 4.391), http://www.heartrhythmjournal.com/article/S1547-5271(17)30497-6/fulltext, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2017.04.031 , 22 April 2017.

. Xin Li, João L. Salinet, Tiago P. Almeida, Frederique J. Vanheusden, Gavin S. Chu, G. André Ng, Fernando S. Schlindwein, “An interactive platform to guide catheter ablation in human persistent atrial fibrillation using dominant frequency, organization and phase mapping”, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine,  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2017.01.011. vol. 17, pp. 83-92, April 2017.

.G.S. Chu, X. Li, F.J. Vanheusden, T.P. Almeida, J.L. Salinet, N. Dastagir, S.S. Varanasi, S.H. Chin, S. Siddiqui, S.H. Man, P.J. Stafford, A.J. Sandilands, F.S. Schlindwein, G.A. Ng, Targeting cyclical highest dominant frequency in the ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation, Young Investigators Competition of Heart Rhythm Congress (HRC2015), Birmingham UK, 4-7 October 2015. In: Europace, (2016) 17 (suppl_5): v1-v2, (IF: 4.21), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euv324. (2016).

. Salinet JL, Masca N, Stafford PJ, Ng GA, Schlindwein FS, “Three-dimensional dominant frequency mapping using autoregressive spectral analysis of atrial electrograms of patients in persistent atrial fibrillation”, BioMedical Engineering OnLine, (IF: 1.43), https://biomedical-engineering-online.biomedcentral.com/, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12938-016-0143-8, pp. 1-15, 8 March 2016.

. Almeida TP, Chu GS, Salinet JL, Vanheusden FJ, Li, Tuan JH, Stafford PJ, Schlindwein FS, Ng GA, “Minimizing discordances in automated classification of fractionated electrograms in human persistent atrial fibrillation”, Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, (IF: 1.878), http://link.springer.com/journal/11517/onlineFirst/page/1, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-016-1456-2, pp. 1-12, 25 February 2016.

. William B Nicolson, Gerry P McCann, Matthew I Smith, Alastair J Sandilands, Peter J Stafford, Fernando S Schlindwein, Nilesh J Samani, G André Ng, “Prospective evaluation of two novel ECG-based restitution for prediction of sudden cardiac death risk in ischaemic cardiomyopathy”, Heart (British Cardiac Society), Volume 100, Issue 23, pp. 1878-1885, (IF: 6.023), http://heart.bmj.com/content/100/23/1878, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305672 , 4 August 2014.

.  Ahmad, A., Buyamin, S., Tuan, J. H., G. Andre´ Ng, Schlindwein, F. S., “Evolution of frequency composition for Atrial arrhythmias”, Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering), vol. 69, N.8, pp.27-29, ISSN: 0127-9696, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.11113/jt.v69.3291, 30 April 2014.

. JL Salinet Jr, JPV Madeiro, PC Cortez, PJ Stafford, G Andre Ng, FS Schlindwein, “Erratum to: Analysis of QRS-T subtraction in unipolar atrial fibrillation electrograms”, Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, ISSN: 0140-0118, IF: 1.878, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-013-1080-3,  Volume 51, Issue 12, p. 1393, December 2013.

. JL Salinet Jr, JPV Madeiro, PC Cortez, PJ Stafford, G Andre Ng, FS Schlindwein, “Analysis of QRS-T Subtraction in Unipolar Atrial Fibrillation Electrograms”, Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, ISSN: 0140-0118, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-013-1071-4 , Volume 51, Issue 12, pp 1381-1391, December 2013.

. Salinet, João Loures; Tuan, Jiun Haur; Sandilands, Alastair James; Stafford, Peter James; Schlindwein, Fernando Soares; Ng, Ghulam André, “Distinctive Patterns of Dominant Frequency Trajectory Behavior in Drug-Refractory Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Preliminary Characterization of Spatiotemporal Instability”, accepted by Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.24, issue 11, ISSN: 1540-8167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.12331, 13 November 2013.

. W.B. Nicolson, M.I. Smith, G. Chu, P.B. Brown, A.J. Sandilands, P.J. Stafford, F.S. Schlindwein, N.J. Samani, G.P. McCann, G.A. Ng, "Body surface restitution gradient predicts sudden cardiac death risk in a clinical study", Journal of Electrocardiology, Volume 46, Issue 4, p. e2, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2013.05.012, July–August 2013.

. Aziz, W., Biala, T., Habib, N., Abbasi, M.S., Wailoo, M.P., Schlindwein, F.S., "Heart rate variability in low birth weight growth restricted children during sleep and wake stages", Measurement, ISSN: 0263-2241, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2013.04.007, volume 46, issue 8, pp. 2300-2305, October 2013.

.Madeiro JPV, Nicolson WB, Cortez PC, Marques JAL, Vázquez-Seisdedos CR, Elangovan N, Ng GA, Schlindwein FS, “New approach for T-wave peak detection and T-wave end location in 12-lead paced ECG signals based on a mathematical model”, accepted for publication in Medical Engineering & Physics, ISSN: 1350-4533,  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2012.11.007, 02 January 2013.

. Salinet Jr. JL, Oliveira GN., Vanheusden FJ, Comba JLD, Ng GA, Schlindwein FS, "Visualizing Intracardiac Atrial Fibrillation Electrograms Using Spectral Analysis”, Computing in Science and Engineering, IEEE Computer Society and the American Institute of Physics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 79-87, ISSN: 1521-9615, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCSE.2013.37, March-April 2013.

. Biala, T., Aziz, W., Wailoo, M., Schlindwein, F.S., "Heart rate variability: Linear and non-linear analysis of pre-awake period for normal and intrauterine growth restricted children at 10 yr". Measurement, Volume 45, Issue 8, Pages 2096–2102, October 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2012.05.005, May 2012.

. Nicolson WB, McCann GP, Brown PD, Sandilands AJ, Stafford PJ, Schlindwein FS, Samani NJ, Ng GA. "A Novel Surface Electrocardiogram Based Marker of Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy". Journal of the American Heart Association, vol.1, Issue 4, pp. 1-10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.112.001552, August 2012.

. Aziz, W., Schlindwein F.S., Wailoo M., Biala T, Cardona Rocha, F., “Heart Rate Variability Analysis of Normal and Growth Restricted Children", Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 22, issue 2, pp. 91-97, ISSN: 0959-9851 (Print) 1619-1560 (Online) , http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10286-011-0149-z, April 2012.

. Ahmad, A., Salinet Jr., J.L., Brown, PD, Tuan, J.H., Stafford, P., Andre Ng, G. and Schlindwein, F.S., "QRS subtraction for atrial electrograms: flat, linear and spline interpolations", Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-011-0829-9, vol. 49, Number 11, pp. 1321-1328, November 2011.

. Ahmad A., Schlindwein, F.S., Ng G.A., "Comparison of computation time for estimation of dominant frequency of atrial electrograms: Fast Fourier Transform, Blackman Tukey, Autoregressive and Multiple Signal Classification", J. Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE), 2010, N. 3, pp.843-847, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2010.39114, September 2010.

. Yanhui Feng, Schlindwein, Fernando Soares, “Normalized wavelet packets quantifiers for condition monitoring”, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 23, pp. 712-723, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2008.07.002, April 2009.

. Thanagasundram, S., Spurgeon, S.K. and F.S. Schlindwein, “A fault detection tool using analysis from an autoregressive model pole trajectory”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 317, pp.975–993, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2008.03.044, 11 November 2008.


My current research interests are real-time digital signal processing of biological signals, with particular interests in i) ECG analysis, including

  • electrical activation in Atrial Fibrillation
  • assessment of the risk of ventricular arrhythmia using electrical restitution
  • ECG of patients with Chagas disease
  • heart rate variability analysis
  • microprocessor-, microcomputer- and Digital Signal Processor-based systems

On ECG analysis, the emphasis has been on signal processing of the electrical activation of the heart, especially the atria during Atrial Fibrillation, in close collaboration with Professor André Ng and Dr. Xin Li (Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester Glenfield Hospital) and researchers from Brazil (Dr. João Salinet and Dr. Tiago Almeida, ABC University, and Dr. João Madeiro, UFC).

For the off-line aspects of the research, we use either MATLAB programming, or C/C++, while for the real-time applications, we use a set of hardware and programming tools that include MATLAB, programming the GPUs of graphics processor cards, in collaboration with Dr. João Luiz Dihl Comba and Dr. Guilherme N. Oliveira (UFRGS, Brazil), Digital signal processors and personal computers, Assembly language (for the both DSP and the host PC), and C language.

Another recent area of interest is the processing of Holter signals (24 h ECG) of Chagas disease patients, to improve their treatment, with Professor Roberto Coury Pedrosa (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). A full list of my publications is available on my public profiles at Research Gate or Google Scholar.

Engineering tools applied on Atrial Fibrillation


Atrial Fibrillation can be cured by ablation of areas that harbour high dominant frequencies (HDF) of the atrial electrical activation.


An alternative approach to help locate areas for ablation towards the cure of Atrial Fibrillation is mapping the phase of the atrial electrical activation.


Dr Fernando Schlindwein (Engineering) and Professor Andre Ng (Cardiology, on the photo above) develop and use modern techniques based on mathematical and engineering concepts to target areas responsible for abnormal electrical activation of the heart. Ablating those areas using a catheter is the one of the treatments to cure Atrial Fibrillation.

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