Publications since 2000

Google Scholar: Publications, Citations, H-index


Fulcher, G. and Harding, L. (2022). The Routledge Handbook of Language Testing. 2nd Edition. London and New York: Routledge.

Fulcher, G. (2015). Re-examining Language Testing: A philosophical and social inquiry. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN: 978-1-13-877470-4. 232 pages. Winner of the 2016 SAGE/ILTA Book Award (jointly with Fulcher and Davidson, 2012): Click Here for further information. You can also visit the companion website, download the Citation of the Award Committee, and read the press release. There is also a second press release with photo.

Fulcher, G. and Davidson, F. (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Language Testing. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN: 0415570638, 560 pages. Winner of the 2016 SAGE/ILTA Book Award (jointly with Fulcher, 2015): Click Here and scroll down for further information, download the Citation of the Award Committee, and read the press release.

Fulcher, G. (2010). Practical Language Testing. London: Hodder Education. ISBN: 987-0340984482. 352 pages + xvi.

Fulcher, G. and Davidson, F. (2007). Language Testing and Assessment. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN: 0415339472. 423 pages.

Fulcher, G. (2003). Testing Second Language Speaking. London: Longman/Pearson Education. ISBN: 0582-472709. 312 pages

Book Chapters

Xi, X., Norris, J., Ockey, G., Fulcher. G., & Purpura, J. (forthcoming). Assessing Academic Speaking. In Xi, X. and Norris, J. (Eds.) Assessing Academic English for Higher Education Admissions. London and New York: Routledge.

Fulcher, G. (2021). Language Assessment Literacy in a Learning-Oriented Assessment Framework. In Gebril, A. (Ed.) Learning-oriented language assessment: Putting theory into practice. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780367437138

Fulcher, G. (2021). Language Testing. In Mohebbi, H. and Coombe, C. (Eds.) Research Questions in Language Education and Applied Linguistics. London: Springer.

Green, T. and Fulcher, G. (2020). The Test Design Cycle. In Winke, P. and Brunfaut, T. (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing. London and New York: Routledge.

Fulcher, G. (2020). Operationalising Assessment Literacy. In Tsagari, D. (Ed.) Assessment Literacy. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars.

Fulcher, G. (2019). Cultivating language assessment literacy as collaborative CPD. In Gillway, M. (Ed.) Addressing the state of the union: Working together, learning together, (pp. 27 - 35). Reading: Garnet.

Fulcher, G. (2018) Assessing Spoken Production. In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching Vol 8, (pp. 4900 – 4906). Edited by John I. Liontas (Project Editor: Margo DelliCarpini; Volume Editor (Coombe, C.), Hoboken, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Fulcher, G. (2017). The Practice of Language Assessment. In Hinkel, E. (Ed.) Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 463 – 475). London and New York: Routledge.

Browne, K. & Fulcher, G. (2017). Perception and Pronunciation in Fluency Assessment. In Isaacs, T. & Trofimovich, P. (Eds.) Interfaces in Second Language Pronunciation Assessment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 37 – 53). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Open Access: Download the Complete Book Here.

Fulcher, G. and Owen, N. (2016). Dealing with the demands of language testing. In Hall, G. S. (Ed.) The Routledge Handbook of English Language Teaching (pp. 109 – 120). London and New York: Routledge.

Fulcher, G. (2016). Criteria for Evaluating Language Quality. In Shohamy, E. (Ed). Language Testing and Assessment. Vol. 7. of the Encyclopaedia of Language and Education. New York: Springer. 2nd Edition.

Fulcher, G. (2016). Standards and Frameworks. In Banerjee, J & Tsangari, D. (Eds.) Handbook of Second Language Assessment, (pp. 29 – 44). Berlin: DeGruyter Mouton.

Fulcher, G. (2016). Context and Inference in Language Testing. In King, J. (Ed.) The Dynamic Interplay Between Context and the Language Learner. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fulcher, G. (2014). Language testing and philosophy. In Kunnan, A. J. (Ed.) The Companion to Language Testing. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Fulcher, G. (2014). Language Testing in the Dock: Assessment and the Law. In Kunnan, A. J. (Ed.) The Companion to Language Testing. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Fulcher, G. (2013). Test design and retrofit. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (pp. 5809 - 5817). Malden MA: Wiley Blackwell.

Kemp, J. and Fulcher, G. (2013). Performance Decision Trees: Developing domain-specific criteria for teaching and assessment. In J. Wrigglesworth (Ed.) EAP within the higher education garden: Cross-pollination between disciplines, departments and research. (pp. 159 – 170). Reading: Garnet.

Fulcher, G. (2012). "Rating scales in performance testing." In Fulcher, G. and Davidson, F. (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Language Testing. London and New York: Routledge, 378 - 382.

Davidson, F. and Fulcher, G. (2012). "Test specifications." In Coombe, C., O'Sullivan, B., Davison, P. and Stoynoff, S. (Eds.) The Cambridge Guide to Language Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fulcher, G. (2010). "The reification of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and effect-driven testing." In Psyaltou-Joycey, A. and Matthaioudakis, M. (Eds.) Advances in Research on Language Acquisition and Teaching. Thessaloniki: GALA.

Fulcher, G. (2009). "The commercialization of EAP provision in Higher Education." In Alderson, J. C. (Ed.) The Politics of Language Education: Individuals and Institutions. London: Multilingual Matters, 125 - 146.

Fulcher, G. (2008). "Assessing Language Quality". In Shohamy, E. (Ed.) Language Testing and Assessment. Vol. 7, Encyclopedia of Language and Education. New York: Springer Publishers, 157 - 176.

Fulcher, G. (2007). "Industrial methods for cottage industries? Alternatives for classroom assessment." In Niakaris, C. I. and Nebel, A. (Eds.) Testing and Teaching: Opportunities for Learning. Athens: Hellenic American Union, 44 - 51.

Fulcher, G. (2005). "Language Framework Documents and the Hallmark of Political Purpose." In Niakaris, C. I. and Nebel, A. (Eds.) Testing and Evaluation. Athens: Hellenic American Union, 28 - 31.

Fulcher, G. (2001). "Communicative Language Testing." In Coombe, C., Riley, S. and Troudi, S. (Eds.) Bridging the Gap between Teacher and Learner. Dubai: TESOL Arabia, 52 - 68.

Fulcher, G. (2000). "Computers in language testing." In Brett P. and Motteram, G. (Eds.) A special interest in computers: Learning and teaching with information and communications technologies. Manchester: IATEFL publications, 93 - 107.

Journal Articles

Yi, Jong-Il and Fulcher, G. (2018). Strategy use in the TOEFL iBT Speaking Test and Academic Classroom. Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics 34(1), 223 – 252.

Fulcher, G. (2015). Testing Second Language Speaking: A Research Timeline. Language Teaching 48(2), 198 - 216.

Fulcher, G. & Svalberg, M. A-L. (2013). Limited Aspects of Reality: Frames of reference in language assessment. International Journal of English Studies 13(2), 1 - 19. Second language testing: Interfaces between Pedagogy and Assessment. Download the PDF here.

Fulcher, G. (2012). "Assessment literacy for the language classroom." Language Assessment Quarterly 9, 2, 113 - 132.

Fulcher, G., Davidson, F., and Kemp, J. (2011). "Effective rating scale development for speaking tests: Performance Decision Trees." Language Testing 28, 1, 5 - 29.

Fulcher, G. (2009). "Test use and political philosophy." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 29, 3 - 20.
Fulcher, G. and Davidson, F. (2009). "Test Architecture. Test Retrofit." Language Testing 26, 1, 123 - 144.  Winner of the 2011 International Language Testing Association Best Article Award.


Fulcher, G. and Davidson, F. (2008). "Tests in Life and Learning: A Deathly Dialogue." Educational Philosophy and Theory, 40, 3, 407 - 417.

Fulcher, G. (2007). "Evaluating quality in second language performance tests." English Language Assessment 1, 3 - 19.

Davidson, F. and Fulcher, G. (2007). "The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the design of language tests: A Matter of Effect." Language Teaching 40, 3, 231 - 241.

Xing, P. and Fulcher, G. (2007). "Reliability assessment for two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test." System 35, 2, 182 - 191.

Fulcher, G. (2006). "Test Architecture." Foreign Language Education Research, 9, 1 - 22.

Márquez-Reiter, R., Rainey, I. & Fulcher, G. (2005). "A comparative study of conventional indirectness in British English and Peninsular Spanish." Applied Linguistics 26, 1, 1 - 31.

Fulcher, G. (2004). "Deluded by artifices? The Common European Framework and harmonization." Language Assessment Quarterly, 1, 4, 253 - 266.

Chalhoub-Deville, M. & Fulcher, G. (2003). "The oral proficiency interview and the ACTFL Guidelines: A research agenda." Foreign Language Annals 36, 4, 498 - 506.
Fulcher, G. (2003). "Interface design in computer based language testing." Language Testing 20, 4, 384 - 408.

Fulcher, G. and Márquez-Reiter, R. (2003). "Task difficulty in speaking tests." Language Testing 20, 3, 321 - 344.

Fulcher, G. (2000). "The 'communicative' legacy in language testing." System 28, 4, 483 - 497.

Articles in the Media, Newsletters and Reviews

Fulcher, G. (2011). "Cheating gives lie to our test dependence." Guardian Weekly, 14th October.

Fulcher, G. (2010). "Assessment Literacy for the English Language Classroom." Testing, Evaluation and Assessment Newsletter, IATEFL, September, 6 - 8.

Fulcher, G. (2008). "Testing Times Ahead?" Liaison Magazine, Issue 1: July, 20 - 24. Published by the UK Subject Centre for Linguistics, Languages and Area Studies (LLAS), University of Southampton.

Fulcher, G. (2007). "Universities undermine their own foundations." Guardian Weekly, 13 April.
Davidson, F. and Fulcher, G. (2006). "Flexibility is proof of a good 'framework'." Guardian Weekly, 17 November.

Fulcher, G. (2005). "Better Communications Test will Silence Critics". Guardian Weekly, 18 November.

Fulcher, G. (2005). "Educational Test Analysis." Language Testing Update, 36, 152 - 154.

Fulcher, G. (2004). "Are Europe's tests being built on an unsafe framework?". Guardian Weekly, 18 March.

Fulcher, G. (2003). "Few ills cured by setting scores." Guardian Weekly, 17 April.

Fulcher, G. (2003). "Scaling the peak of writing assignments/dissertations." Guardian Weekly, 21 November.

Fulcher, G. (2002). "Managers face the tests." EFL Gazette, April, Issue 267.

Fulcher, G. (2001). "Machines get cleverer at testing." Guardian Weekly, 17th May.

Fulcher, G. (2000). "Assessment in Independent Language Learning." In the Curriculum and Independence for the Learner Network Handbook (CIEL)

Fulcher, G. (2000). Review of Chalhoub-Deville, M (Ed.) 1999. Issues in computer-adaptive testing of reading proficiency: selected papers. Studies in Language Testing Vol. 10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Language Testing 17, 3, 361 - 367.

Guest Edited Volumes

Fulcher, G. (2000). Expanding perspectives on language testing in the 21st century. Special edition of System, Volume 28, Number 4.

A Selection of Recent Conference Presentations

In May 2018 I gave the opening plenary at the closing conference for the TALE project in Assessment Literacy for Teachers at the University of Cyprus.

In May 2014 I gave the keynote address at the Bureau for International Language Coordination (NATO) conference in Bruges, looking at the question of how different countries can address the issues of language assessment for armed forces personnel who are likely to be placed in multinational peace keeping operations.

On 2nd February 2014 I gave the keynote talk at the Trinity College Conference at the Birmingham Metropole Hotel, on Language Testing in Flux. This provided an analysis of key social changes that are likely to impact on the work of examination boards over the next 5 to 10 years.

In September 2013 I gave an invited talk on the construct of 'fluency' in language assessment, for the invited Cambridge English Centenary Symposium on Speaking Assessment.

In October 2012 I was the keynote speaker at AFELTA, the association of Asian examination boards, which meets in Xi'an, China.

In September 2012 I was distinguished lecturer at Temple University in Japan (Tokyo and Osaka campuses), where I  gave 6 hours of public lectures and a further 18 hours of seminars for MA and doctoral students.

The Language Testing Research Colloquium for 2011 was held at the University of Michigan, where I was presenting in a symposium on Assessment Literacy.The title of my presentation was "Operationalizing Assessment Literacy" in the context of blended learning approaches to the testing components of teacher education programmes.

In 2011 I gave a joint presentation on the potential use of Performance Decisions Trees (PDTs) in ESP contexts at the BALEAP Conference in Portsmouth, 10th - 12th April. If you're not sure what PDTs are, then see: Fulcher, G., Davidson, F. & Kemp, J. (2011). "Effective rating scale development for speaking tests: Performance Decision Trees." Language Testing 28, 1, 1 - 25.

In 2010 I gave an invited keynote at Marie Curie Universitiy, Paris, on 29th January, on the use of the Common European Framework of Reference in European institutions. I also gave an invited talk on school-based assessment at the annual conference of the UK's Independent Schools Modern Language Association on 6th February.

Publications Prior to 2000


Fulcher, G. (1997) (Ed) Writing in the English Language Classroom. London: Phoenix ELT/Prentice Hall Macmillan.

Fulcher, G. (1990). A GCE O Level Workbook. Mavromatis Books, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Book Chapters

Fulcher, G. (1999). "Library and Information Services Requirements: A Course Developer's Perspective." In D. A. Lock (ed.) Library Services for Distance Learners. Surrey: University of Surrey, 3 - 8.

Fulcher, G. (1998). "Testing Speaking". In Clapham, C. (Ed). Language Testing and Assessment. Vol. 7. of the Encyclopaedia of Language and Education, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 75 - 86.

Fulcher, G. (1998). "Computer-based language testing: The call of the internet." In Coombe, C. A. (Ed.) Current Trends in English Language Testing. UAE: Al Ain University Press. 1 - 14.

Fulcher, G. (1997). "Assessing Writing". In Fulcher, G. (Ed) Writing in the English Language Classroom. Phoenix ELT/Prentice Hall Macmillan.

Fulcher, G. (1996). "The interplay of evidence in the consideration of variable scores and performance across tasks." In J. Field, A. Graham and M. Peacock (Eds) Insights 1. Kent: IATEFL Publications.

Fulcher, G. (1991). "The role of assessment by teachers in schools." In Caudery, T. (ed) New Thinking in TEFL. (The Dolphin Series No. 21), Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 138 - 158.

Journal Articles

Fulcher, G. (1999). "Computerising an English language placement test." English Language Teaching Journal 53, 4, 289 - 299.

Fulcher, G. (1999). "Assessment in English for Academic Purposes: Putting content validity in its place." Applied Linguistics 20, 2, 221 - 236.

Fulcher, G. and Lock, D. (1999). "Distance Education: The future of library and
information services requirements." Distance Education 20, 2, 313 - 329.

Fulcher, G. (1998). "Widdowson's model of communicative competence and the testing of reading: An exploratory study." System 26, 3, 281 - 302.

Fulcher, G. (1997). "Text difficulty and accessibility: Reading formulae and expert judgement." System 25, 4, 497 - 513.

Fulcher, G. (1997). "An English Language Placement Test: Issues in reliability and validity." Language Testing 14, 2, 113 - 139.

Fulcher, G. (1996). "Testing tasks: issues in task design and the group oral." Language Testing 13, 1, 23 - 51.

Fulcher, G. (1996). "Invalidating validity claims for the ACTFL Oral Rating Scale." System 24, 2, 163 - 172.

Fulcher, G. (1996). "Does thick description lead to smart tests? A data-based approach to rating scale construction" Language Testing 13, 2, 208 - 238.

Fulcher, G. and Bamford, R. (1996). "I didn't get the grade I need. Where's my solicitor?" System 24, 4, 437 - 448.

Fulcher, G. (1995). "Variable competence and Second Language Acquisition: A problem for research methodology. System 25, 1, 25 - 33.

Fulcher, G. (1991). "Conditionals Revisited." English Language Teaching Journal 45, 2, 164 - 168.

Fulcher, G. (1989). "Cohesion and coherence in theory and reading research."
Journal of Research in Reading 12, 2, 146 - 163.

Fulcher, G. (1989). Lexis and reality in oral evaluation. US Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, and the Centre for Applied Linguistics. ERIC document number: ED 298759.

Fulcher, G. (1988). "Item Response Theory: what is it?" Education Today 28, 4, 44 - 52.

Fulcher, G. (1988). "The EFL Classroom as a place for research." Education Today 38, 4, 44 - 52.

Fulcher, G. (1987). "Measurement or Assessment: a fundamental dichotomy and its educational implications." Education Today 37, 2, 60 - 65.

Fulcher, G. (1987). "Tests of Oral Performance: the need for data-based criteria." English Language Teaching Journal 41, 4, 287 - 291.

Articles in the Media, Newsletters and Reviews

Fulcher, G. (1999). Review of Barnwell, D. P. 1996: A History of Foreign Language Testing in the United States: from its beginnings to the present. Tempe, Arizona: Bilingual Press. Language Testing 16, 3, 389 - 394.

Fulcher, G. (1999). "Ethics in Language Testing." TAE SIG Newsletter 1, 1, 1 - 4.+
Fulcher, G. (1997). "QM Web: A World Wide Web Test Delivery Program." Language Testing Update 21, 45 - 49.

Fulcher, G. (1996). "Writing in the Classroom" Modern English Teacher, 5, 3, 45 - 48.

Fulcher, G. (1996). "Brief report on the Language Testing Forum 1995". Language Testing Update, 19, 79 - 80.

Fulcher, G. (1996). "Cyberspace revisited". Language Testing Update, 19, 43 - 51.

Fulcher, G. (1995). "The Language Tester's Guide to Cyberspace." Language Testing Update 17, 62 - 65.

Fulcher, G. (1994). "Some priority areas in oral language testing research." Language Testing Update 15, 39 - 47.

Fulcher, G. (1990). "Review of Testing Spoken Language by Nic Underhill, CUP 1987. English Language Teaching Journal 41, 1, 80 - 82.

Fulcher, G. (1988). "Teaching vocabulary for writing." Modern English Teacher 15, 1, 25 - 30.

Fulcher, G. (1987). "Contextual Hyponymy: a communicative approach to teaching lexis in context." Modern English Teacher 14, 3, 14 - 17.

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