Professor Iain B Squire

Professor Iain SquireProfessor of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Leicester & Honorary Consultant Physician, University Hospitals of Leicester

B.Sc. (Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Joint Honours)(1st Class) Strathclyde, 1982
M.B.,Ch.B. Glasgow, 1987
M.R.C.P. (UK) 1991
M.D. Glasgow, 1997
F.R.C.P. (London) 2002
F.E.S.C. 2014


Tel: +44 (0)116 204 4750 Email:

Address: Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Glenfield General Hospital, Leicester, LE3 9QP

Personal details

B.Sc, M.B.,Ch.B, M.R.C.P., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.E.S.C.

I am Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine and University of Leicester & Honorary Consultant Physician, University Hospitals of Leicester.

Clinical trials

1. UK Lead Investigator for EMPEROR-HF studies (placebo-controlled studies of the effect on morbidity and mortality of empagliflozin in patients with HF with reduced (EMPEROR Reduced) or preserved (EMPEROR preserved) LV ejection fraction

2. UK Lead Investigator for Realise-K study

3. Steering Group member: MAGGIC (Meta-analysis Global Group In Chronic Heart Failure) Study. An individual patient-level meta analysis comparing survival in patients with heart failure with low ejection fraction to those with preserved ejection fraction. Data from 46, 596 patients in 29 studies, coordinated by Professor Rob Doughty, University of Auckland, New Zealand. This international collaboration has led to 14 peer reviewed publications.

4. UK Principal Investigator and Steering Committee member for PARADIGM HF; A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study to establish the efficacy and safety of LCZ696 compared to enalapril on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. This study recruited over 8,400 patients November 2009-March 2014 and was terminated prematurely on the advice of the Trial Data Monitoring Committee on the basis of clear evidence of clinical superiority of LCZ696.

5. UK Principal Investigator and Steering Committee member for RELAX-AHF 2; A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study to establish the efficacy and safety of serelaxin in patients with acute heart failure

6. UK Principal Investigator and Steering Committee member for The ATLAS 2 ACS TIMI 51 Trial (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Subjects With a Recent Acute Coronary Syndrome) August 2009-2011. This international study enrolled over 13,000 patients

7. Chair of Trial Steering Committee STOP CKD: Spironolactone to Prevent Cardiovascular Events in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pilot Trial. August 2013-September 2014

8. Independent Data/Safety Monitoring Committee Novartis CQAB 149B2348 trial



  • Chair of British Society for Heart Failure (BSH) Research Committee; Previously Chair; Deputy Chair, Treasurer, and Councillor of BSH
  • Vice Chair, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisal Committee A 2000-2018
  • Chair National Information Centre for Cardiac Outcomes Research (NICCOR) Data Access for Reseasrch Committee
  • UK Lead Investigator PARADIGM-HF trial; RELAX AHF2 trial
  • UK co-ordinator of a Europe-wide Cardiac Resynchronisation Registry, on behalf of the Heart Failure Association and Heart Rhythm Society of the European Society of Cardiology. July 2008-current
  • Editorial boards : Clinical Science Editorial Advisory Board August 2006-2012




Selected recent publications

  1. Docherty KF, Campbell RT, Brooksbank KJM, Dreisbach JG, Forsyth P, Godeseth RL, Hopkins T,  Jackson AM, Lee MYL, McConnachie A, Roditi G, Squire IB, Stanley B, Welsh P, Jhund PS, Petrie MC, McMurray JJV. The Effect of Neprilysin Inhibition on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Late After Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. 2021,
  • Gupta P, Voors AA, Patel P, Lane D, Anker S, Cleland JGF, Dickstein K, Filippatos G, Lang CC, van Veldhuisen DJ, Metra M, Zannad F, Samani NJ, Jones DJL, Squire IB, Ng L. Non-adherence to heart failure medications predicts clinical outcomes: Assessment in a single spot urine sample by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (results of a prospective multicentre study). Eur J Heart Fail. 2021 Mar 23. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.2160. PMID: 33759308
  • COVID-19 and its cardiovascular effects: a systematic review of prevalence studies. Pellicori P, Doolub G, Wong CM, Lee KS, Mangion K, Ahmad M, Berry C, Squire I, Lambiase PD, Lyon A, McConnachie A, Taylor RS, Cleland JG Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 11;3:CD013879. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013879. PMID: 33704775
  • Ashok, V, Squire IB. Forty-six year old man with palpitations.
  • Simpson J, Jackson CE, Haig C, Jhund PS, Tomaszewski M, Gardner RS, Tsorlalis Y, Petrie MC, McMurray JJV, Squire IB, Gupta P. Adherence to prescribed medications in patients with heart failure – insights from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based urine analysis. European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy,
  • Kanagala P, Arnold JR, Singh A, Chan DCS, Cheng ASH, Khan JN, Gulsin GS, Yang J, Zhao L, Gupta P, Squire IB, Ng LL, McCann GP (2020) Characterizing heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction: An imaging and plasma biomarker approach. PLoS ONE 15(4): e0232280.
  • Pedrosa da Costa Gomes C, Schroen B, Kuster GM, Robinson EL, Ford K, Squire IB, Heymans S, Martelli F, Emanueli C, Devaux Y, on behalf of the EUCardioRNA COST Action (CA17129). Regulatory RNAs in Heart Failure. Circulation. 2020;141:313–328. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.042474
  • Abtehale Al-Hussaini , Ahmed M S E K Abdelaty Gaurav S Gulsin , Jayanth R Arnold, Marcos Garcia-Guimaraes , Diluka Premawardhana, Charley Budgeon, Alice Wood, Nalin Natarajan, Kenneth Mangion , Roby Rakhit , Stephen P Hoole, Thomas W Johnson, Colin Berry, Ian Hudson, Anthony H Gershlick, Andrew Ladwiniec, Jan Kovac, Iain Squire, Nilesh J Saman, Sven Plein , Gerry P McCann, David Adlam. Chronic Infarct Size After Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Implications for Pathophysiology and Clinical Management. Eur Heart J 2020. PMID: 31898721 DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz895
  • Marco Metra , John R Teerlink, Gad Cotter , Beth A Davison, G Michael Felker, Gerasimos Filippatos , Barry H Greenberg, Peter S Pang, Piotr Ponikowski, Adriaan A Voors, Kirkwood F Adams , Stefan D Anker, Alexandra Arias-Mendoza, Patricio Avendaño, Fernando Bacal, Michael Böhm, Guillermo Bortman, John G F Cleland, Alain Cohen-Solal, Maria G Crespo-Leiro, Maria Dorobantu, Luis E Echeverría, Roberto Ferrari, Sorel Goland, Eva Goncalvesová, Assen Goudev, Lars Køber, Juan Lema-Osores, Phillip D Levy, Kenneth McDonald, Pravin Manga, Béla Merkely, Christian Mueller, Burkert Pieske, Jose Silva-Cardoso, Jindřich Špinar, Iain Squire, Janina Stępińska, Walter Van Mieghem, Dirk von Lewinski, Gerhard Wikström, Mehmet B Yilmaz, Nicole Hagner, Thomas Holbro, Tsushung A Hua , Shalini V Sabarwal, Thomas Severin, Peter Szecsödy, Claudio Gimpelewicz , RELAX-AHF-2 Committees Investigators. Effects of Serelaxin in Patients With Acute Heart Failure. N Engl J Med , 381 (8), 716-726 2019 Aug 22
  • Stefan D Anker, Javed Butler, Gerasimos S Filippatos, et al. Evaluation of the Effects of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibition With Empagliflozin on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure and a Preserved Ejection Fraction: Rationale for and Design of the EMPEROR-Preserved Trial. Eur J Heart Fail; 21 (10), 1279-1287 Oct 2019:PMID: 31523904 DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.1596
  • Dukka H, Kalra PA, Wilkie M, Bhandari S, Davies SJ, Barratt J, Squire I, Odudu A, Selby NM, McIntyre C, Robertson F, Taal MW. Peritoneal Ultrafiltration for Heart Failure: Lessons from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Perit Dial Int 2019; 39(5):
  • Kanagala P, Arnold JR, Cheng ASH, Singh A, Khan JN, Gulsin GS, Yang J, Zhao L, Gupta P, Squire IB, Ng LL, McCann. GP. Left atrial ejection fraction and outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
  • Lawson CA, Zaccardi F, Squire I, Ling S, Davies M, Lam C, Mamas M, Khunti K, Kadam UT. 20-year Trends in Cause-Specific Heart Failure Outcomes by Sex, Socioeconomic Status, and Place of Diagnosis: A Population-Based Study Lancet Public Health 2019; 8 e406-e420
    14. Anderson LJ, Squire IB, Cowie MR. Global lessons from deaths from heart failure in UK hospitals. Heart 2019 Epub ahead of print: doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2018-31464
  • Couper K, Kimani PK, Gale CP, Quinn T, Squire IB, Marshall A et al. Variation in outcome of hospitalised patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from acute coronary syndrome: a cohort study. Health Serv Deliv Res 2018;6(14); 1-116 (Published 28-Mar-2018). DOI 10.3310/hsdr06140
  • Yuyun MF, Squire IB, Ng GA, Samani NJ. Evidence for reduced susceptibility to cardiac bradycardias in South Asians compared with Caucasians. Heart Epub ahead of print: 21 February 2018.doi:10.1136/ heartjnl-2017-312374
  • Clark AL, Cherif M, McDonagh TA, Squire IB. In-hospital worsening heart failure: a clinically relevant endpoint? ESC Heart Fail. 2018 Feb;5(1):9-18. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.12195. Epub 2017 Jul 18. Review. PMID: 29385659
  • Squire I. Socioeconomic status and outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Heart. 2018 Jan 25. pii: heartjnl-2017-312814. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312814. PMID: 29371375
  • Kanagala P, Cheng ASH, Singh A, McAdam J, Marsh AM, Arnold JR, Squire IB, Ng LL, McCann GP. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction - implications for clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2018 Jan 11;20(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s12968-017-0424-9. PMID: 29321034
  • Couper K, Kimani PK, Gale CP, Quinn T, Squire IB, Marshall A, Black JJM, Cooke MW, Ewings B, Long J, Perkins GD. Patient, health service factors and variation in mortality following resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in acute coronary syndrome: Analysis of the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project. Resuscitation. 2018 Jan 5;124:49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.01.011. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29309882
  • Squire I. Biomarkers and Prognostication in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved ejection fraction: similar but different ? Eur. J. Heart Failure. 2017. DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.974
  • Kurmani S, Squire I. Acute Heart Failure: Definition, Classification and Epidemiology. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2017 Oct;14(5):385-392. doi: 10.1007/s11897-017-0351-y. Review. PMID: 28785969
  • Ridker PM, Everett BM, Thuren T, MacFadyen JG, Chang WH, Ballantyne C, Fonseca F, Nicolau J, Koenig W, Anker SD, Kastelein JJP, Cornel JH, Pais P, Pella D, Genest J, Cifkova R, Lorenzatti A, Forster T, Kobalava Z, Vida-Simiti L, Flather M, Shimokawa H, Ogawa H, Dellborg M, Rossi PRF, Troquay RPT, Libby P, Glynn RJ; CANTOS Trial Group. Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease. N Engl J Med. 2017 Sep 21;377(12):1119-1131. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1707914. Epub 2017 Aug 27. PMID: 28845751
  • Singh JSS, Burrell LM, Cherif M, Squire IB, Clark AL, Lang CC. Sacubitril/valsartan: beyond natriuretic peptides. Heart. 2017 Oct;103(20):1569-1577. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-311295. Epub 2017 Jul 8 . Review. PMID: 28689178
  • Gupta P, Patel P, Štrauch B, Lai FY, Akbarov A, Marešová V, White CMJ, Petrák O, Gulsin GS, Patel V, Rosa J, Cole R, Zelinka T, Holaj R, Kinnell A, Smith PR, Thompson JR, Squire I, Widimský J Jr, Samani NJ, Williams B, Tomaszewski M. Risk Factors for Nonadherence to Antihypertensive Treatment. Hypertension. 2017 Jun;69(6):1113-1120. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08729. Epub 2017 May 1. PMID: 28461599
  • Squire I, Glover J, Corp J, Haroun R, Kuzan D, Gielen V. Impact of HF on HRQoL in patients and their caregivers in England: results from the ASSESS study. Br J Cardiol 2017;24:30–4doi:10.5837/bjc.2017.007
  • Gulsin GS, Shetye A, Khoo J, Swarbrick DJ, Levelt E, Lai FY, Squire IB, Arnold JR, McCann GP.Does stress perfusion imaging improve the diagnostic accuracy of late gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance for establishing the etiology of heart failure? BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2017 Apr 8;17(1):98. doi: 10.1186/s12872-017-0529-y. PMID: 28390413
  • Devaux Y, Creemers EE, Boon RA, Werfel S, Thum T, Engelhardt S, Dimmeler S, Squire I Circular RNAs in heart failure.; Cardiolinc network. Eur J Heart Fail. 2017 Jun;19(6):701-709. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.801. Epub 2017 Mar 27. Review. PMID: 28345158
  • Suzuki T, Israr MZ, Heaney LM, Takaoka M, Squire IB, Ng LL. Prognostic Role of Molecular Forms of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Acute Heart Failure.Clin Chem. 2017 Apr;63(4):880-886. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2016.265140. Epub 2017 Feb 9. PMID: 28183728
  • Ng LL, Squire IB, Jones DJL, Cao TH, Chan DCS, Sandhu JK, Quinn PA, Davies JE, Struck J, Hartmann O, Bergmann A, Mebazza A, Gayat E, Arrigo M, Akiyama E, Sabti Z, Lohrmann J, Twerenbold R, Herrmann T, Schumacher C, Kohzuharov N, Mueller C. Proenkephalin, renal dysfunction and prognosis in patients with acute heart failure. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2017; 69: 56-69. doi: 10/1016/j.jacc.2016.10.038
  • McMurray JJ, Krum H, Abraham WT, Dickstein K, Køber LV, Desai AS, Solomon SD, Greenlaw N, Ali MA, Chiang Y, Shao Q, Tarnesby G, Massie BM; ATMOSPHERE Committees Investigators. Aliskiren, Enalapril, or Aliskiren and Enalapril in Heart Failure. N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 21;374(16):1521-32. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1514859. PMID: 27043774
  • Vanezis AP, Rodrigo GC, Squire IB, Samani NJ. Remote ischaemic conditioning and remodelling following myocardial infarction: current evidence and future perspectives. Heart Fail Rev. 2016 Sep;21(5):635-43. doi: 10.1007/s10741-016-9560-9. PMID: 27177446
  • Kristensen SL, Martinez F, Jhund PS, Arango JL, Bĕlohlávek J, Boytsov S, Cabrera W, Gomez E, Hagège AA, Huang J, Kiatchoosakun S, Kim KS, Mendoza I, Senni M, Squire IB, Vinereanu D, Wong RC, Gong J, Lefkowitz MP, Rizkala AR, Rouleau JL, Shi VC, Solomon SD, Swedberg K, Zile MR, Packer M, McMurray JJ. Geographic variations in the PARADIGM-HF heart failure trial. Eur Heart J. 2016 Nov 1;37(41):3167-3174. PMID: 27354044
  • Kristensen SL, Preiss D, Jhund PS, Squire I, Cardoso JS, Merkely B, Martinez F, Starling RC, Desai AS, Lefkowitz MP, Rizkala AR, Rouleau JL, Shi VC, Solomon SD, Swedberg K, Zile MR, McMurray JJ, Packer M. Risk Related to Pre-Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Mellitus in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Insights From Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure Trial. Circ Heart Fail. 2016 Jan;9(1). pii: e002560. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.115.002560.

Book chapters

  • Squire IB. Aetiology and epidemiology of Chronic Heart Failure. In Oxford Cardiology Library: Chronic Heart Failure. MT Kearney (Editor). Oxford University Press 2008
  • Squire IB and Reid JL.  Implications for the pathophysiology of hypertension and heart failure derived from clinical experience with drugs modifying the renin angiotensin system. IN: Enzymes and receptors of the Renin Angiotensin System: Celebrating a century of discovery.  pp 175-186. A.Husain & R.Graham, Eds. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 2000
  • Squire IB and Barnett DB. Inotropic agents: dead and buried ? In: Heart Failure in Clinical Practice 257-270;  JJV McMurray & JGF Cleland, Eds. Martin Dunitz London 1996
  • Squire IB, Reid JL. Interactions Between the Renin-Angiotensin System and the Autonomic Nervous System.    IN: The Renin Angiotensin System: 37.1-37.16. J.I.S. Robertson, M.G.Nicholls, Editors. Gower Medical Publishing, London 1993

Full lists of publications


Before 2006


  • Natriuretic peptides and other peptide markers in heart failure

  • Epidemiology of heart failure

  • Clinical trials in heart failure

  • Epidemiology and management of acute coronary artery disease

  • Advanced nursing issues in the management of heart failure

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