Professor Ian Clark

Visiting Professor of Employment Relations

Contact Details


Ian is a Visiting Professor from Nottingham Trent University, where he is based in the Business School.  Ian has scholarly expertise in three areas. First, economic performance and economic re-structuring in the British economy since 1945. Second, HRM and industrial relations in American multinational firms and the extent which US multinationals are HRM and industrial relations innovators in the UK. Third, the diffusion of new business models associated with financial capitalism and the rise of private equity and the recent financial crisis. In addition to these areas Ian recently managed a research team which examined NHS strategies for skill-mix in hospitals and the effect of this strategy on health care assistants. In terms of impact and public policy Ian provided oral and written evidence to the UK Government Treasury Select Committee during its investigation into private equity between 2007 and 2009. Ian also co-wrote the GMB submission to the committee and briefed the GMB union General Secretary and the UNITE union deputy General Secretary before they gave oral evidence to the committee. More recently Ian briefed the General Secretary of the Union of Communication Workers’ on the potential dangers of private equity involvement in the privatisation of the UK Royal Mail. Ian’s input helped to secure that the Royal Mail pension scheme will remain controlled and administered by the government once Royal mail is privatised. As well as continuing work on health care assistants Ian’s current research focuses on the financial crisis and its impact on workers and managers. More specifically this work examines the sustainability of new business models associated with financial capitalism and the effects of financial distress and administration in portfolio firms controlled by private equity. Ian works closely with colleagues in the Centre for Economic Policy Research in Washington DC where he was a visiting researcher.

Research Interests

Investor and shareholder capitalism
Financialisation and the financial crisis
The Private Equity Business Model and employment relations
Skill-mix strategies in the NHS

HRM and industrial relations in American multinational firms

PhD Supervision


Most Recent Publications

Yates, E. and Clark, I. (2018) ‘The strategic economic governance of greater Manchester’s local labour market by the state: Implications for young workers’ Economic and Industrial Democracy, read the whole article here

Clark, I. and Colling, T. (2017) ‘Work in Britain’s Informal Economy: Learning from Road-Side Hand Car Washes’ British Journal of Industrial Relations, early view, November, 23rd

Clark, I. (2017) British-Based Foreign-Owned Firms: ‘Containing, Embracing and Hyper-Activating Britishness’? Industrial and Economic Democracy published on early view December 5th read the whole article at

Clark, I. (2016) ‘Financialization, Ownership and Employee Interests under Private Equity at the AA, Part Two’. Industrial Relations Journal, 47:3 328-353

Goyer, M., Clark, I., Bankaraully, S. (2016) ‘A Qualitative Analysis of Downsizing in France and the United Kingdom 2008-2013’ Human Resource Management Journal, 26:3 252-268. Read the whole article here.

Beck, V., Brook, P., Carter, R., Clark, I. Danford, A. Hammer, N., Kanji, S., Simms, M. (2016) Editorial: Work, Employment and Society – Sans frontiers: extending and deepening our reach. Work, Employment and Society 30:2 211-219

Clark, I. and Colling, T. (2016) ‘New Insights into Informal Migrant Employment: Hand Car Washes in a Mid-Sized English City’ Economic and Industrial Democracy. read the whole article at

Hammer. N. Plugor, R., Nolan, P., Clark, I (2014) ‘New Industry on a Skewed Playing Field: Supply Chain Relations and Working Conditions in UK Garment Manufacturing’ The Centre for Sustainable Work and Employment Futures, The University of Leicester.

Clark, I. (2014) 'Health-care assistants, aspiration, frustration and job satisfaction in the workplace' Industrial Relations Journal, 45:4 300-312.

Clark. I (2014) 'Private Equity Buy-Outs – What About the Workers?', GMB@AA. February.

Heyes, J., Lewis, P. and Clark, I. (2014) ‘Varieties of Capitalism Re-considered: Learning from the Great Recession and its Aftermath’ in The Comparative Political Economy of Work and Employment Relations, Haupemeier, M. and Vidal, M. Palgrave Macmillan Labour Process Book Series. April.

Clark, I. (2014) ‘Comparative HRM and Responses to Global Crises’ in Beardwell, J. and Thompson, A. (Eds) Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach. Pearson Education, London. 7th Edition, October.

Appelbaum, E. Batt, R., Clark, I. (2013) ‘Implications for Employment Relations Research: Evidence from Breach of Trust and Implicit Contracts in Private Equity Buy-Outs’ British Journal of Industrial Relations. 51:3 498-518.

Clark, I. (2013) ‘Templates for Financial Control’ Management and Employee Interests under Private Equity’ Human Resource Management Journal. Vol.23:2 144-159.

Heyes, J. Lewis, P. Clark, I. (2012) ‘Varieties of Capitalism: The State, Financialisation and the Economic Crisis of 2007-?’  Industrial Relations Journal 43(3) 222-241 May.

Clark, I. and Bawden, C.  (2011) ‘A Practitioner Study of Investment in the UK Retail Sector by Mid-Market Private Equity, 2000-2008’ Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance. 13(3) 215-243.

Clark, I. (2011) ‘Private Equity, Union Recognition and Value Extraction at the AA.’ Industrial Relations Journal 42(1) 36-50.

Morrell, K. and Clark, I. (2010) ‘Private Equity and the Public Good’ The Journal of Business Ethics.  96:249-266, March.

Bailey, D., Clark, I. De Ruyter, A. (2010) ‘Private Equity and the Flight of the Phoenix Four – the Collapse of MG Rover’ The Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society,   Volume 3(3), 1-15.

Clark, I. (2009a) The Private Equity Business Model And Associated Strategies For HRM: Evidence And Implications? The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 20 (10), October, 2030-2048.

Clark, I. (2009b) ‘Private Equity in the UK: Job Regulation and Trade Unions’ Journal of Industrial Relations. 51(4) 491-502.

Clark, I. (2009c) ‘Owners not Managers: Disconnecting Managerial Capitalism? Understanding the Take Private Equity Business Model.’ Work, Employment and Society 23(4), 359-378.

Full Listing of Publications

Clark, I. (2007) ‘Private Equity and HRM in the British Business System’ Human Resource Management Journal 17(3) 218-226.

Clark, I. (2006) ‘Another Third Way:?, VW and Trials of Stakeholder Capitalism’ Industrial Relations Journal 37(6) 593-607.

Colling, T. and Clark, I. (2006) ‘What Happened When the Americans Took Over Britain’s Electricity Industry? Exploring Trans-National Sector Effects on Employment Relations’ The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 17(9) 1625-1644.

Clark, I., Almond, P., Gunnigle, P., Wachter, H. (2005) ‘Americanization in the European Business System’ Industrial Relations Journal 36(6) December, pages 494-517.

Edwards, T., Almond, P., Clark, I., Colling, T. and Ferner, A. (2005). ‘Reverse Diffusion in US Multinationals: Barriers from the American Business System’ Journal of Management Studies 42(6) pages 1261-1268.
Clark, I. and Colling, T. (2005) ‘The Management of Human Resources in Project-Led Organizations’ Personnel Review Volume 34(2) 178-191.

Ferner, A., Almond, P., Clark, I., Colling, T., Edwards, T., Holden, L., (2004) ‘The Dynamics of Central Control and Subsidiary Autonomy in the Management of Human Resources: Case Study Evidence from US MNC’s in the UK’ Organization Studies Volume 25(3) pages 363-391.

Clark, I. and Almond, P. (2004) ‘Dynamism and Embeddedness: Towards a Lower Road?: British Subsidiaries of American Multinationals and the British Business System Industrial Relations Journal Volume 35(5) pages 536-556.

Almond, P., Edwards, T. Clark, I. (2003) ‘Multinationals and Changing National Business Systems in Europe: Towards the “Shareholder Value” Model’? Industrial Relations Journal Volume 34 (5), Pages 430-446.

Clark, I., Colling, T., Almond, P., Peters, R., Gunnigle, P., Morley, M., Portillo, M. (2002) ‘Multinationals in Europe 2001-2002: Home Country, Host Country and Sector Effects in the Context of Crisis’ Industrial Relations Journal Volume 33(5) pages 445-463.

Colling, T. and Clark, I. (2002) ‘ “Looking for Americanness”: Sector Effects in Engineering Process Plant Contracting’ European Journal of Industrial Relations Volume 8(3) pages 301-325.

Clark, I. (2001) ‘Strategic HRM as a Budgetary Control Mechanism in the Large Corporation: A Case Study from Engineering Contracting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting. December Volume 12 797-815 pages.

Clark, I. (2000) ‘The Productivity Race – British Manufacturing in Historical Perspective’ Historical Studies in Industrial Relations No. 9 Spring 2000, pages 133-146.

Clark, I. (1999a) ‘Institutional Stability in Management Practice and Industrial Relations: The Influence of the Anglo-American Council for Productivity, 1948-1952’ Business History, Volume 40(3) July. Pages 64-92.

Clark, I. (1999b) ‘Corporate Human Resources and “Bottom Line” Financial Performance’ Personnel Review Volume 28(4) pages 290-307.

Clark, I. (1998a) ‘Designing and Sustaining an Entrepreneurial Role for the Human Resource Function’. The International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research Volume 4(2).

Clark, I. (1998b) ‘Competitive Pressures and Engineering Process Plant Contracting’ Human Resource Management Journal Volume 8(2) pages 14-29.

Clark, I. (1994) ‘HRM: The Reinvention of Modern Management?’ Personnel Review Volume 23(5) pages 17-25.

Clark, I. (1993) ‘HRM: Prescription, Description and Concept’ Personnel Review Volume 22(4) pages 17-26.

Clark, I. and Ball, D. (1991) ‘Transaction Cost Economics Applied? Consortia within Process Plant Contracting’. The International Review of Applied Economics Volume 5(3) pages 341-357.

Clark, I. and Clark, T. (1991) ‘Personnel Management: Defence, Retrenchment and Advance?’ Personnel Review Volume 20(1) pages 13-19.

Clark, I. and Clark, T. (1990) ‘Personnel Management and the use of Executive Recruitment Consultants’.  Human Resource Management Journal Volume 1(1) pages 46-62.

Monographs and Monograph Chapters
Clark, I. (forthcoming) ‘Distress And Trafficking In New Capitalism The Fate Of Private Equity Portfolio Firms In Economic Crisis’? in Watt, A. and Galgoczi, B. (Eds) Private Equity and Financialization: Their Impact on the Real Economy  ETUC. Brussels,  ISBN and publication date not yet available.

Heyes, J. & Clark, I. (2011) ‘The Role of the State’ in Townsend, K. and Wilkinson, A. (Eds.) Edward Elgar Research Handbook on Work and Employment Relations. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. August 2011, Hardback. isbn number 9781848448469, 320 pages.

Clark, I. and Almond, P. (2006) ‘Overview of the US Business System’ in Almond, P. and Ferner, A. (Eds) American Multinationals in Europe: Human Resource Policies and Practices. Oxford University Press.

Ferner, A., Almond, P., Butler, P., Clark, I., Colling, T., Edwards, T. and Holden, L. (2004) ‘Das Human Resource Management Americanisher Unternehmen in Grossbritanien’ in Wacher, H., and Peters, R., (Eds) Personal Politik Amerikanischer Unterehmen in Europe. Rainer HamppVerlag, Munchen, Germany.

Clark, I. (2000) ‘Governance, The State, Regulation and Industrial Relations’ published in the Routledge Explorations in Economic History Series. Routledge Research, London.  Hardback, ISBN 0-415-20263-9, July, 208 pages.

Clark, I. (1996) ‘The State and New Industrial Relations’: in Beardwell, I. (Ed) Critical Essays in Industrial Relations, Oxford University Press.

Engagement, Impact and Practitioner Publications

Clark, I. 'How is Ownership at Astra Zeneca Open for Pfizer's Business' on the CSWEF news and events feed and also on School of Management blog

Appelbaum, E. Batt, R., Clark, I. (2011) ‘Financial Capitalism, Breach of Trust and Collateral Damage’.  Report published by the Centre for Economic Policy Research, November 2011. Available on the CEPR website under Experts Publications Eileen Appelbaum.

Clark, I. (2011) Written Evidence submitted to Department for Business Innovation and Skills Consultation ‘A Long-Term Focus for Corporate Britain’. Cited as a contributor in the summary of responses – A long-term focus of corporate Britain, March 2011.  Contribution cited in Department for Business Innovation and Skills – Summary of Responses – Long Term Focus for Corporate Britain, March 2011, page 27.

Clark, I. (2008) ‘Private Equity Friend or Foe’ Editor’s Highlight/Leader referred debate article in People Management 21st August, pages 18-25. CIPD, London, reviewed in BUIRA news no. 63, page 1, October 2008, President’s Review.

Clark, I. (2007a) Invited to Submit Written Evidence to the Financial Services Authority on Private Equity Regulation, March. (Cited as a contributor to the FSA Feedback Report ‘Private Equity: A discussion of Risk and Regulatory Engagement, June 2007).

Clark, I. (2007b) Private Equity, HRM and the British Business System. Report and Evidence submitted to the Treasury Select Committee on Private Equity as part of the GMB union submission, April 2007. Published by the TSC as the ‘GMB Memorandum of Submission’, June 2007.

No author Credit (2007c) House of Commons Treasury Committee, Private Equity, Tenth Report of Session 2006-07 Volume 2 Oral and Written Evidence, House of Commons HC 567-11 August, Stationary Office. Pages 101-106 authored by Ian Clark.

Ferner, A., Almond, P., Butler, P., Clark, I., Colling, T., Edwards, T., Holden L. (2004) ‘How “American” are American Multinationals? Managing HRM in US subsidiaries in the UK’. Worldlink (Magazine of the World Federation of Personnel Management Associations) Vol. 14(1). Pages 4-5.

Ferner, A., Almond, P., Butler, P., Clark, I., Colling, T., Edwards, T., Holden, L., Muller, M. (2003) ‘The Management of Human Resources in Subsidiaries of US MNCs’ ESRC Report, published by the ESRC and De Montfort University. 141 pages, Report lodged with the British Library by the ESRC.

Almond, P., Butler, P., Clark, I., Colling, T., Edwards, T., Ferner, A., Holden, L. (2004) ‘Atlantic Crossing: US Influences on UK HR’ IRS Employment Trends no.797, pages 8-9, 2/4/04. Two page summary of the US MNC project.

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