Professor Paul Baines

Professor of Political MarketingPaul Baines

Contact details

  • Tel: +44 (0)116 229 7509
  • Email: paul.baines@le.ac.uk
  • Office: Room 0.30, Teaching Centre, Brookfield
  • Office hours: By appointment, please email

Personal details

I previously held a chair in Political Marketing at Cranfield University. Prior to that I was Principal Lecturer in Marketing and Director of Business Development at Middlesex University Business School. I hold PhD, MPhil and BSc (Hons.) degrees from the University of Manchester, a PCGHE from Middlesex University and an MSc in Quantitative Methods for Science, Social Science and Medicine from Lancaster University. I am a Fellow of the Institute of Directors and the Market Research Society.

Over the last 20 years, my research has focused on political marketing, public opinion and propaganda. I edited the three-volume reference series 'Political Marketing' (Sage Publications, 2011), and the four-volume reference series 'Propaganda' (Sage Publications, 2013, with Nicholas O'Shaughnessy). I am the co-author of the best-selling textbook ‘Marketing 4e’ by Baines, Fill & Rosengren (Oxford University Press, 2017) and ‘Fundamentals of Marketing’ (also by OUP, 2016). I have also co-authored a series of books in the ‘Explaining’ series about public opinion in UK elections, the most recent of which was about Brexit, entitled ‘Explaining Cameron’s Catastrophe’ (IndieBooks, 2017), with Sir Robert Worcester, Roger Mortimore, and Mark Gill. In 2017, working with former and current Ipsos MORI co-authors, I won the International Journal of Market Research collaborative research award for the second time (first time in 2014).  I have been a regular commentator in both the press and broadcast media on political marketing topics during British elections and referendums.

I have worked for the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Home Office, Ministry of Defence and UK Law Enforcement on communication research projects as well as on IBM executive development programmes for London Business School and as a coach and mentor for marketing directors/CEOs of mainly medium and large companies. I am currently a Non-Executive Director of the Business Continuity Institute (BCI) and Director of the marketing research/strategic marketing consultancy, Baines Associates Limited.

Teaching

My teaching has previously encompassed undergraduate, postgraduate and post-experience levels, including full time and executive MBA teaching, in the UK, Canada, Finland, Malaysia, Singapore, Sweden, Saudi Arabia and Cyprus across a number of aspects of marketing including marketing research, marketing strategy, political marketing, public relations, branding, and consumer behaviour. At ULSB, I teach on the following modules:

  • MSc Marketing: Marketing Strategy and Innovation; Principles of Marketing & Research Methods for Marketing

Administrative responsibilities

  • Associate Dean - Enterprise

Research

I am particularly interested in how messages are received by audience segments, especially through emotional appeals. Current research work includes funding for a project to evaluate the effectiveness of police social marketing/counter-terrorism communications (i to i research/Department for Transport) and a project to explore the effectiveness of guilt-elicitation in marketing communications (British Academy). I am presently supervising PhD and DBA work on political marketing to youth audiences and dynamic pricing in the Croatian telecommunications market.

  • Political marketing and propaganda
  • Guilt and fear appeals in marketing communications

Supervision

I am interested in supervising PhD and DSocSci research in the following areas:

  • Political marketing
  • Marketing communications
  • Publications

    Selected Recent Publications

    Antonetti, P.; Baines, P. and Jain, S. (2018). The persuasiveness of guilt appeals over time: Pathways to delayed compliance. Journal of Business Research. In Press.

    Pareek, B.; Ghosh, P.; Wilson, H.; Macdonald, E.; and Baines, P. (2018). A Bayesian zero-inflated dynamic multinomial choice model of media impact on voter choice using real-time experience tracking data. Journal of the American Statistical Association. In Press.

    Baines, P. and Jones, N. (2018). Influence and interference in foreign elections: The evolution of its practice. The RUSI Journal. In press.

    Mortimore, R..; Baines, P.; Worcester, R.M. and Gill, M. (2017). Findings of the BPC/MRS enquiry into polling during the 2015 British General Election: The Ipsos MORI response and perspective. International Journal of Market Research, 59(2). (Winner of the IJMR Collaborative Research Award 2017).

    Baines, P. (2017). Technological Impacts on market attitudes and behaviour. Psychology & Marketing, 34(4), 351-355.

    Walker, L.; Baines, P., Dimitriu, R. and Macdonald, E. (2017). Antecedents of retweeting behaviour in a (political) marketing context. Psychology & Marketing, 34 (3), 275-293.

    Full listing of publications from 2008

    Refereed journals

    Antonetti, P.; Baines, P. and Jain, S. (2018). The persuasiveness of guilt appeals over time: Pathways to delayed compliance. Journal of Business Research. In Press.

    Pareek, B.; Ghosh, P.; Wilson, H.; Macdonald, E.; and Baines, P. (2018). A Bayesian zero-inflated dynamic multinomial choice model of media impact on voter choice using real-time experience tracking data. Journal of the American Statistical Association. In Press.

    Baines, P. and Jones, N. (2018). Influence and interference in foreign elections: The evolution of its practice. The RUSI Journal. In press.

    Mortimore, R..; Baines, P.; Worcester, R.M. and Gill, M. (2017). Findings of the BPC/MRS enquiry into polling during the 2015 British General Election: The Ipsos MORI response and perspective. International Journal of Market Research, 59(2). (Winner of the IJMR Collaborative Research Award 2017).

    Baines, P. (2017). Technological Impacts on market attitudes and behaviour. Psychology & Marketing, 34(4), 351-355.

    Walker, L.; Baines, P., Dimitriu, R. and Macdonald, E. (2017). Antecedents of retweeting behaviour in a (political) marketing context. Psychology & Marketing, 34 (3), 275-293.

    Nyman, J.A.; Pilbeam, C.J.; Baines, P. & Maklan, S. (2016). Identifying the roles of the university's principal-gift fundraiser in securing transformational gifts - lessons from Canada. Studies in Higher Education, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2016.1242565.

    Antonetti, P.; Baines, P. and Walker, L. (2015). From elicitation to consumption: Assessing the longitudinal effectiveness of negative emotional appeals in social marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(9-10), 940-969

    Antonetti, P. and Baines, P. (2015). Guilt in marketing research: An integrating framework and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 17(3), 333-355.

    Poenaru, A.; Baines, P. and Wilson, H. (2014). Building capabilities in market segmentation. The European Business Review, May-June, 52-55.

    Baines, P. and O’Shaughnessy, N.J. (2014). An aberration of political marketing: An analysis of Al Qaeda positioning from 1999-2008. Public Relations Inquiry, 3(2), 163-191.

    Baines, P. and O’Shaughnessy, N.J. (2014). Political marketing and propaganda: Uses, abuses, misuses. Journal of Political Marketing, 13(1/2), 1-18.

    Mortimore, R.; Baines, P.; Crawford, I.; Worcester, R. and Zelin, A. (2013). Asymmetry in leader image effects and the implications for leadership positioning in the 2010 British General Election. International Journal of Market Research,55, DOI.10.2501/IJMR-2013-000 (Winner of the IJMR Collaborative Research Award 2014).

    Baines, P.; Crawford, I.; O’Shaughnessy, N.J.; Worcester, R. and Mortimore, R. (2013). Positioning in political marketing: How semiotic analysis can support traditional survey approaches. Journal of Marketing Management, 30(1/2), 172-200.

    Jones, N. and Baines, P. (2013). Losing control: Social media and military influence. The RUSI Journal, 158(1), 72-78.

    Viney, H. and Baines, P. (2012). ‘Engaging government: Why it’s necessary and how to do it. The European Business Review, September-October, 9-13.

    O’Shaughnessy, N.J.; Baines, P.; O’Cass, A. and Ormrod, R. (2012). Political market orientation: Complications, confusions and criticisms. Journal of Political Marketing, 11(4), 353-366.

    Baines, P. and Harris, P. (2011). Marketing in the 2010 British general election - perspectives, prospect and practice, Journal of Marketing Management, 27(7/8), 647-655.

    Baines, P.; McDonald, E.; Wilson, H.; and Blades, F. (2011). The relative importance of channel experiences and their impact on voting intention. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(7/8), 691-717.

    Baines, P.; O’Shaughnessy, N.J.; Moloney, K.; Richards, B.; Butler, S. and Gill, M. (2010). The dark side of political marketing: Islamist propaganda, Reversal Theory and British muslims. European Journal of Marketing, 44(3/4), 478-495.

    Baines, P.; Brennan, R.; Gill, M. and Mortimore, R. (2010). Examining the academic/practitioner divide in marketing research”, European Journal of Marketing, 43(11/12), 1289-1299.

    Baines, P. and Viney, H. (2010). An unloved relationship? Dynamic capabilities and political-market strategy: A research agenda”, Journal of Public Affairs, 10(1), DOI: 10.1002/pa.346

    Baines, P. (2009). Evaluating the effect of the fear appeal in advertising: implications for information operations. Journal of Information Warfare, 8(1), 20-

    O’Shaughnessy, N.J. and Baines, P.  (2009). The selling of terror: The symbolisation and positioning of Jihad. Marketing Theory, 9(2), 227-241.
    Bailey, C.; Baines, P.; Wilson, H. and Clarke, M. (2009). Segmentation and customer insight in contemporary services marketing practice: why grouping customers is no longer enough. Journal of Marketing Management, 25(3/4), 227-252.

    Books

    Worcester, R.; Mortimore, R.; Baines, P. & Gill, M. (2017). Explaining Cameron’s Catastrophe. London: Indie Books.

    Baines, P.; Fill, C., Rosengren, S. and Antonetti, P. (2017). Fundamentals of Marketing, 1e. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Baines, P.; Fill, C. and Rosengren, S. (2017). Marketing 4e, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Worcester, R.; Mortimore, R.; Baines, P. & Gill, M. (2016). Explaining Cameron’s Comeback. London: Indie Books.

    Baines, P. and Fill, C. (2014), Marketing, 3e, Oxford: Oxford University Press (with associated DVD and website www.oxfordtextbooks.co.uk/orc/baines).

    Baines, P. and O’Shaughnessy (eds.) (2013), Propaganda, Vols. I-IV, London: Sage Publications.

    Baines, P.; Fill, C. and Page, K.; Dioux, J. and Tramonte, N. (2012), Le Marketing: Des Fondamentaux À La Pratique Contemporaine, Bruxelles: De Boeck.

    Baines, P.; Fill, C. Page, K; Sinha, P.K. (2013), Marketing, Asian Edition, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

    Baines, P.; Fill, C. and Page, K. (2012), Essentials of Marketing, Oxford: Oxford University Press (with associated website www.oxfordtextbooks.co.uk/orc/baines).

    Baines, P. (ed.) (2011), Political Marketing, Vols.I-III, London: Sage Publications.

    Worcester, R.; Mortimore, R.; Baines, P. and Gill, M. (2011), Explaining Cameron’s Coalition: The Outcome of the 2010 British General Election, London: Biteback Publishing.

    Baines, P.; Fill, C. and Page, K. (2008, 2011), Marketing (1e/2e), Oxford: Oxford University Press (with associated DVD and website www.oxfordtextbooks.co.uk/orc/baines).

    Brennan, R.; Baines, P., Garneau, P. (2003 and 2008), Contemporary Strategic Marketing, 1st and 2nd Edition (with Lynn Vos), Basingstoke: Palgrave Press (1ed also published in Chinese).

    Articles and Chapters in Edited Books

    Viney, H..; Baines, P. and Stegen, L. (2016). Marketing and Public Affairs. In: Harris, P. and Fleisher, C. (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Public Affairs, London: SAGE Publications, 115-133.

    Lannoy, C.; Mortimore, R. and Baines, P. (2016). Political branding: the case of the Scottish referendum 2014. In: Dall’Olmo Riley, F.; Singh, J. and Blankson, C. (Eds.) (2016). The Routledge Companion to Contemporary Brand Management, Oxford: Routledge, 423-447.

    Jones, N.; Baines, P.; Craig, R.; Tunnicliffe, I. & O’Shaughnessy, N.J. (2015). “The Islamist cyberpropaganda threat and its counter-terrorism policy implications”. In: Richet, J.L. (Ed.), Cybersecurity Policies and Strategies for Cyberwarfare Prevention. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 341-366.

    Viney, H. and Baines, P. (2015). “Managing business-government relations through organizational advocacy”. In: Lawton, T. and Rajwani, T. (eds.) (2014), Managing Nonmarket Strategy, Oxford: Routledge, forthcoming.

    Jones, N.; Baines, P.; and Welsh, S. (2014), “Counter-marketing in a wicked problem context: The case of Cocaine”. In: Bradley, N. and Blythe, J. (ed.), Demarketing, London: Routledge, pp.44-64.

    Ryals, L.; Baines, P.; Dimitriu, R.; Knox, S.; Macdonald, E. and Marcos-Cuevas, J. (2012), “Issues in sustainable marketing”. In: Grayson, D. and Exter, N. (Eds.), Cranfield on Corporate Sustainability, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing, 119-132.

    Baines, P. (2011), “Political public relations and election campaigning”. In: Strömback, J. and Kiousis, S. (eds.) (2011), Political Public Relations: Principles and Applications, Oxford: Routledge, pp.115-137.

    Baines, P. (2008), “Political marketing”. In: Lee Kaid, L. and Holtz-Bacha, C. (eds.) (2008), Encyclopaedia of Political Communication, 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Professional publications

    Worcester, R.; Mortimore, R.; Baines, P. and Gill, M. (2018). Brexit Britain, two years on. Significance, June, pp.30-33. In press.
    Baines, P. (2017). How did the Conservatives squander a 21-point lead in a month ? Huffington Post. 2nd June. Retrieve from: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/paul-baines/conservative-lead-polling_b_16920440.html

    Baines, P. (2017). What now for polling? Communication Director, January, 5-9.

    Antonetti, P. and Baines, P. (2017). Best practice: Guilt trips. Admap, March, 14-15.

    Spencer, C..; Baines, P. and Holmes, S. (2017). From police promotion to reassurance communications. Admap, May, 27-29.

    Baines, P. (2016). Can terrorists really attack any time, anyplace? Huffington Post, 17th October. Retrieve from: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/paul-baines/can-terrorists-really-att_b_12483672.html [accessed 17th October 2016].

    Baines, P. (2016). Why the Trident vote is a masterclass by the new PM. Huffington Post, 19 July. Retrieve from: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/paul-baines/trident-vote_b_11015638.html [accessed 19 July 2016].

    Baines, P. (2016). How could the Remain camp ever lose? Huffington Post, 27th June. Retrieve from: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/paul-baines/how-could-the-remain-camp_b_10695750.html [accessed 27 June 2016].

    Baines, P. (2016). EU referendum: What are the lessons for political communicators from the Leave and Remain camps ? Civil Service World, 22 June. Retrieve from : https://www.civilserviceworld.com/articles/opinion/eu-referendum-what-are-lessons-political-communicators-leave-and-remain-camps [accessed 23 June 2016].

    Baines, P. (2016). Getting out the vote. The House, 10 June, pp.24-25.

    Baines, P. (2016). ‘Remain’ and ‘Leave’ need a head-to-head  debate to change the electorate’s minds. PR Week, 25 May. Retrieve from: http://www.prweek.com/article/1396244/remain-leave-need-head-to-head-debate-change-electorates-minds [accessed 25 May 2016].

    Baines, P. (2016). Why Brexit campaigners need to start finding something for us to look forward to. Huffington Post, 15 May. Retrieve from: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/paul-baines/brexit-campaign_b_9952628.html

    Baines, P. (2016). Forget scaremongering, voters need to be excited about staying ‘in’. The London Economic, 13 May. Retrieve from: http://www.thelondoneconomic.com/news/forget-scaremongering-voters-need-to-be-excited-about-staying-in/13/05/

    Poenaru, A.; Simmons, S., Goffin, K. and Baines, P. (2014). Best practice: Market segmentation. Admap, November, 14-16.

    Baines, P. (2014), “What Malaysia Airlines must do to survive (and maybe even thrive again). The Conversation, 2 September. Retrieve from: https://theconversation.com/what-malaysia-airlines-must-do-to-survive-and-maybe-even-thrive-again-31154.

    Viney, H. and Baines, P. (2013), “Responsible lobbying”, Communication Director, November.
    Mendoza, J.; Baines, P. and Ryals, L. (2013), “Best practice: Alcohol pricing”, Admap, July-August, 44-45.

    Blades, F. and Baines, P. (2013), “Measuring influence: how real time experience tracking can help measure the effectiveness of party political and corporate communications alike”, Communication Director, January, pp.66-69.

    Baines, P. (2012), “Political marketing has lessons for business schools”, The Financial Times, 12 November, retrieve from: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/e58afb24-2755-11e2-abcb-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2C01AiNze, accessed 12 November.

    Schultz, D.; Macdonald, E. and Baines, P. (2012), “Best Practice: Integrated Marketing Communications”, Admap, November.

    Spencer, C. and Baines, P. (2012), New communication models are calling the tune: measurement methods must face the music”, Admap, January, pp.10-13.

    Baines, P.; Bernon, M.; Clarke, M. Lillis, B. And Srikanthan, S. (2010), “Jeanyus: One Size Fits All?” Cranfield: European Case Clearing House.
    Baines, P. (2009). Why CRM data complacency belongs in the past. Public Sector Executive, January.

    Media

    Selected Media Appearances

    Appearance on Gaby Logan’s Radio 5 Live programme 29 July 2008.

    Appearances on Channel 4 News, Sky News, BBC Look East April and press mentions in Marketing, Brandrepublic.com during the British General Election 2010.

    Appearance on BBC Radio Wales, 20 January 2011.

    Appearance on BBC Three Counties Radio, 14 July 2011.

    Press mention in The Times on small business marketing, 24 July 2012.

    Appearance on the BBC Radio 2 Simon Mayo/Rebecca Pike drive-time show, 5 November 2012.

    Appearance on BBC Three Counties Radio, 6 November 2012.

    Press mention, Daney Parker, PRmoment.com, ‘The changing face of internal comms’ 4 September 2014, retrieve from: http://www.prmoment.com/2721/the-changing-face-of-internal-comms.aspx.

    Press mention, Lucy Tesseras, Marketing Week, ‘Election to be fought with boots on the ground’, 21 January 2015, retrieve from: http://www.marketingweek.com/2015/01/21/292942/

    Op-Ed piece: “Marketing Matters: the 2015 General Election”, WebNewswire, 25 February 2015. Retrieve from: http://www.webnewswire.com/node/3637527.

    Op-Ed piece: “Why Political Marketing Will Be Vital in the 2015 UK General Election”, Policy Review, 25 February 2015. Retrieve from: http://www.policyreview.eu/why-political-marketing-will-be-vital-at-the-uk-general-election/.

    Press mention, Suzy Bashford, Marketing, ‘Why political advertising doesn’t work anymore’, 30 March 2015. Retrieve from: http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/youtube/article/1339573/why-political-advertising-doesnt-work-anymore/.

    Appearance on the BBC 5 Live Daily with Peter Allen, 2 April 2015.

    Appearance on the BBC 5 Live Up All Night show with Dotun Adebayo, 17 April 2015.

    Press mention, Sarah Vizard, Marketing Week, “How and why brands are tapping into the general election”, 6 May 2015. Retrieve from: http://www.marketingweek.com/2015/05/06/how-and-why-brands-are-tapping-into-the-general-election/

    Op-Ed piece: “General election: The Verdict”, Business MK, 16 May 2015. Retrieve from: http://www.businessmk.co.uk/news/art/1910/General-Election-The-Verdict.html.

    Press mention, Jan Stuchlik, E15.cz, “Paul Baines: Islámský stát prodává smrt jako nesmrtelnost”, 21 September 2015: http://nazory.euro.e15.cz/rozhovory/paul-baines-islamsky-stat-prodava-smrt-jako-nesmrtelnost-1228786.

    Press mention, British Transport Police, ‘Project Servator: Police tactics to deter, detect and disrupt crime on the rail network’. Rail Connect, January 2016.

    Press mention, ‘Detecting and deterring crime on the rail network’. Counter Terror Business. Retrieve from: http://www.counterterrorbusiness.com/features/detecting-and-deterring-crime-rail-network

    Press mention, Tim Phillips, ‘The Challenge of Relevance’, Impact (Magazine of the Market Research Society), Iss 13 (April) 2016, 32-42.

    Appearance on BBC World Service, Newsday, 26 May 2016.

    Press mention, Henry Mance, ‘Frustrated voters make for bad-tempered debate’, Financial Times, 3 June. Retrieve from: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/40d76af4-29a4-11e6-8ba3-cdd781d02d89.html#axzz4AcUmg6XB .

    Press mention, Thomas Hobbs, Marketing Week, “How Brexit has impacted the brand health of the UK’s political parties”, 11 July 2016. Retrieve from: https://www.marketingweek.com/2016/07/11/brexit-assessing-the-brand-health-of-the-political-parties/

    Press mention, Thomas Hobbs, Marketing Week, “The risks and rewards of brands taking on Trump”, 1 February 2017. Retrieve from: https://www.marketingweek.com/2017/02/01/risk-rewards-of-brands-taking-on-trump/.

    Press mention, Amelia Tait, New Statesman, “Can wearing a hat be an act of resistance? How weird political merchandise went mainstream”, 9 February 2017. Retrieve from: http://www.newstatesman.com/science-tech/internet/2017/02/can-wearing-hat-be-act-resistance-how-weird-political-merchandise-went

    Press mention, Thomas Hobbs, Marketing Week, “General election 2017: A foregone conclusion? Or can marketing create an upset?”, 20 April. Retrieve from: https://www.marketingweek.com/2017/04/20/general-election-2017-labour-conservatives/

    Press mention, Amelia Tait, New Statesman, “Byron burgers and bacon sandwiches: can any politician get away with eating on camera?”, 25 April 2017. Retrieve from: http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/june2017/2017/04/byron-burgers-and-bacon-sandwiches-can-any-politician-get-away-eating

    Press mention, Thomas Hobbs, Marketing Week, “Shock general election result shows the importance of authenticity and youth targeting”, 9 June 2017. Retrieve from: https://www.marketingweek.com/2017/06/09/general-election-aftermath-labour-conservatives-corbyn/

    Press mention, [Nicole Lafond], Talk Points Memo, “‘Most sinister’ propaganda: Examining the NRA’s ominous new ad”, 29 June 2017. Retrieve from: http://talkingpointsmemo.com/livewire/nra-ad-example-of-most-sinister-propaganda

    Appearance on Latvian Television, lsm.lv, with Ilze Kalve, 19 May, “Britu parlamentā diskutē par viltus ziņu ierobežošanu pirms vēlēšanām” (trans. The British Parliament discusses pre-election false news). See: https://www.lsm.lv/raksts/zinas/arzemes/britu-parlamenta-diskute-par-viltus-zinu-ierobezosanu-pirms-velesanam.a278974/

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