# Dr Sandro Sozzo

## Associate Professor in Interdisciplinary Applications in Social Science

### Contact details

**Tel:**+ 44 (0) 116 294 4692**Email:**ss831@le.ac.uk**Office:**Room 325, Level 3, Ken Edwards Building**Office Hours:**By appointment

## Personal details

MSc, PhD, HEA

I joined the University of Leicester in October 2013. I am an Associate Professor in Interdisciplinary Applications in Social Science at the School of Business. I am director of the Institute for Quantum Social and Cognitive Science (IQSCS), which has received economic and administrative support from the University of Leicester. In the periods July-September 2014, April and August 2015 I was visiting professor at the Free University of Brussels (VUB).

I am author or co-author of more than 80 contributions, including various articles in A1 high impact and top journals. I have organised conferences and a series of seminars, presented more than 40 communications, and have been invited to give lectures in the UK (Oxford), US, Canada, Europe and China. I am co-editor of the volume The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: Historical Analysis and Open Questions (World Scientific, 2006). In 2013 I was conferred an Outstanding Scholarly Contribution Award by the International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics for my research activities. In 2016 I also received a Superstar Award by the Students Union for my teaching. In March 2015 I was invited to contribute with a presentation in the event Quantum Probability and the Mathematical Modeling of Decision Making, financed by the prestigious ‘Fields Institute’ (University of Toronto), with special issue in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. I am guest editor of the research topic Quantum Structures in Cognitive and Social Science, which appeared in the journal Frontiers in Psychology in 2016. I am also guest editor of the special issue Quantum Probability and Contextuality in Psychology and Economics of the Journal of Mathematical Psychology.

I am managing editor of the Springer-Nature A1 journal Foundations of Science. I am reviewer for several A1 journals and official reviewer for the American Mathematical Society (AMS). I am secretary of the International Quantum Structures Association (IQSA). As a member of its executive committee, I also participate in the administrative and financial management of IQSA. Within the activities of IQSCS, I am co-organising the Biennial Conference on Quantum Structures, which will take place in Leicester, July 11-15, 2016, whose special issue will be published in the International Journal of Theoretical Physics.

In 2013 I co-organised the grant-based series of seminars Parallel Convergences on the mutual relationships between academic and industrial world. I participate as partner in the Consortium “QUARTZ” (Quantum information Access and Retrieval Theory), involving seven European universities, which has been recently funded by the EU Marie Curie Innovative Training Network (ITN).

**Administrative responsibilities**

- Deputy Director of Internationalisation
- Programme Leader BSc Accounting and Finance (Year One)

## Teaching

**Office Hours**: By appointment

- Foundations of Finance (BSc Accounting and Finance Year 1)
- Management Tutorials (BA Management Studies Year 1)
- Derivative Pricing I (seminars, BA Management Studies Year 3)
- Derivative Pricing II (seminars, BA Management Studies Year 3)
- Strategic Financial Management (MSc Finance)
- Financial Option Pricing (MSc Finance and Accounting & Finance)
- Strategic Financial Management (DL, MSc Finance and Electives, Named Internal Examiner)
- Financial Risk Management (DL, MSc Finance, Named Internal Examiner)
- Quantum Models for Cognitive and Social Scientists (Advanced PhD Research Training)

## Publications

### Most recent

- S. Sozzo, “Effectiveness of the Quantum-mechanical Formalism in Cognitive Modeling”, Soft Computing doi 10.1007/s00500-015-1834-y (2016, in print), IF 1.304.
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo, “From Ambiguity Aversion to a Generalized Expected Utility. Modeling Preferences in a Quantum Probabilistic Framework”, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, doi 10.1016/j.jmp.2016.02.007 (2016, in print), IF 2.609.
- E. Haven and S. Sozzo, “A Generalized Probability Framework to Model Economic Agents' Decisions Under Uncertainty”, International Review of Financial Analysis doi 10.1016/ j.irfa.2015.12.002 (2016, in print), IF 0.906.
- D. Aerts, M. Sassoli de Bianchi and S. Sozzo, “On the Foundations of the Brussels Operational-Realistic Approach to Cognition”, Frontiers in Physics, doi: 10.3389/ fphy.2016.00017 (2016, in print).
- C. Garola, S. Sozzo and J.Wu, “Outline of a Generalization and a Reinterpretation of Quantum Mechanics Recovering Objectivity”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 55, 2500-2528 (2016), IF 1.184.
- D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, L. Gabora and S. Sozzo, “Editorial: Quantum Structures in Cognitive and Social Science”, Frontiers in Psychology doi 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00577 (2016), IF 2.56.
- D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, L. Gabora and S. Sozzo, “Contextual and Interfering Prototype Theory. A Formal Quantum Perspective”, Frontiers in Psychology doi 10.3389/ fpsyg.2016.00418 (2016), IF 2.6.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz, “New Fundamental Evidence of Non-Classical Structure in the Combination of Natural Concepts”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 374, 20150095 (2015), IF 2.864.
- S. Sozzo (2015), “Conjunction and Negation of Natural Concepts: A Quantum-theoretic Framework”, Journal of Mathematical Psychology 66, 83-102 (2015), IF 1.805.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz (2015), “Quantum Structure of Negation and Conjunction in Human Thought”, Frontiers in Psychology doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01447, IF 2.8.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz (2015), “The Quantum Nature of Identity in Human Concepts: Bose-Einstein Statistics for Conceptual Indistinguishability”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 54, 4430-4443, IF 1.186.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz, “Quantum Structure in Cognition and the Foundations of Human Reasoning”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 54, 4557-4569 (2015), IF 1.186.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and J. Tapia (2014), “Identifying Quantum Structures in the Ellsberg Paradox”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 53, 3666-3682, IF 1.186.
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2014), “Quantum Entanglement in Concept Combinations”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 53, 3587-3603, IF 1.186.
- D. Aerts, J. Broeakert, M. Czachor, M. Kuna, B. Sinervo and S. Sozzo (2014), “Quantum Structure in Competing Lizard Communities”, Ecological Modeling 281, 38-51, IF 2.326.
- S. Sozzo (2014), “A Quantum Probability Model in Fock Space for Borderline Contradictions”, Journal of Mathematical Psychology 58, 1-12, IF 1.699.
- D. Aerts, L. Gabora and S. Sozzo (2013), “Concepts and Their Dynamics: A Quantum-Theoretic Modeling of Human Thought”, Topics in Cognitive Science 5, 337-372 (2013), IF 2.885.
- D. Aerts, M. Czachor, M. Kuna and S. Sozzo (2013), “Systems, Environments, and Soliton Rate Equations: Non-Kolmogorovian Framework for Population Dynamics”, Ecological Modeling 267, 80-92, IF 2.326.
- D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, L. Gabora and S. Sozzo (2013), “Quantum Structure and Human Thought”, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36, 274-276, IF 25.056.
- S. Sozzo (2013), “The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator in the ESR Model”, Foundations of Physics 43, 792-804, IF 1.055.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2013), “Recovering Quantum Logic within an Extended Classical Framework”, Erkenntnis 78, 399-419.

### Selected publications

**Refereed articles**

- S. Sozzo, “Effectiveness of the Quantum-mechanical Formalism in Cognitive Modeling”, Soft Computing doi 10.1007/s00500-015-1834-y (2016, in print), IF 1.304.
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo, “From Ambiguity Aversion to a Generalized Expected Utility. Modeling Preferences in a Quantum Probabilistic Framework”, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, doi 10.1016/j.jmp.2016.02.007 (2016, in print), IF 2.609.
- E. Haven and S. Sozzo, “A Generalized Probability Framework to Model Economic Agents' Decisions Under Uncertainty”, International Review of Financial Analysis doi 10.1016/ j.irfa.2015.12.002 (2016, in print), IF 0.906.
- D. Aerts, M. Sassoli de Bianchi and S. Sozzo, “On the Foundations of the Brussels Operational-Realistic Approach to Cognition”, Frontiers in Physics, doi: 10.3389/ fphy.2016.00017 (2016, in print).
- C. Garola, S. Sozzo and J.Wu, “Outline of a Generalization and a Reinterpretation of Quantum Mechanics Recovering Objectivity”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 55, 2500-2528 (2016), IF 1.184.
- D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, L. Gabora and S. Sozzo, “Editorial: Quantum Structures in Cognitive and Social Science”, Frontiers in Psychology doi 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00577 (2016), IF 2.56.
- D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, L. Gabora and S. Sozzo, “Contextual and Interfering Prototype Theory. A Formal Quantum Perspective”, Frontiers in Psychology doi 10.3389/ fpsyg.2016.00418 (2016), IF 2.6.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz, “New Fundamental Evidence of Non-Classical Structure in the Combination of Natural Concepts”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 374, 20150095 (2015), IF 2.864.
- S. Sozzo (2015), “Conjunction and Negation of Natural Concepts: A Quantum-theoretic Framework”, Journal of Mathematical Psychology 66, 83-102 (2015), IF 1.805.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz (2015), “Quantum Structure of Negation and Conjunction in Human Thought”, Frontiers in Psychology doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01447, IF 2.8.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz (2015), “The Quantum Nature of Identity in Human Concepts: Bose-Einstein Statistics for Conceptual Indistinguishability”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 54, 4430-4443, IF 1.186.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz, “Quantum Structure in Cognition and the Foundations of Human Reasoning”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 54, 4557-4569 (2015), IF 1.186.
- D. Aerts, B. D'Hooghe, M. Czachor, M. Kuna, B. Sinervo and S. Sozzo (2012), “Quantum Probabilities in Competing Lizard Communities”, Nature Precedings hdl:10101- npre.2012.6954.1, IF 36.280.
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and J. Tapia (2014), “Identifying Quantum Structures in the Ellsberg Paradox”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 53, 3666-3682, IF 1.188.
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2014), “Quantum Entanglement in Concept Combinations”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 53, 3587-3603, IF 1.188.
- D. Aerts, J. Broeakert, M. Czachor, M. Kuna, B. Sinervo and S. Sozzo (2014), “Quantum Structure in Competing Lizard Communities”, Ecological Modeling 281, 38-51, IF 2.326.
- S. Sozzo (2014), A Quantum Probability Model in Fock Space for Borderline Contradictions”, Journal of Mathematical Psychology 58, 1-12, IF 1.699.
- C. Garola, M. Persano, J. Pykacz and S. Sozzo (2013), “Finite Local Models for the GHZ Experiment", International Journal of Theoretical Physics 53(2), 622-644, IF 1.086.
- D. Aerts, M. Czachor, M. Kuna and S. Sozzo (2013), “Systems, Environments, and Soliton Rate Equations: Non-Kolmogorovian Framework for Population Dynamics”, Ecological Modeling 267(10), 80-92, IF 2.326.
- D. Aerts, L. Gabora and S. Sozzo (2013), “Concepts and Their Dynamics: A Quantum-Theoretic Modeling of Human Thought”, Topics in Cognitive Science 5(4), 737-772, IF 2.885.
- D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, L. Gabora and S. Sozzo (2013), “Quantum Structure and Human Thought”, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(3), 274-276, invited paper, IF 25.056.
- S. Sozzo (2013), “The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator in the ESR Model”, Foundations of Physics 43(6), 792-804, IF 1.170.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2013), “Recovering Quantum Logic within an Extended Classical Framework”, Erkenntnis 78, 399-419.
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2013), “A Contextual Risk Model for the Ellsberg Paradox”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 4, 246-250.
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2012), “Contextual Risk and Its Relevance in Economics”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 4, 241-245.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2012), “Extended Representations of Observables and States for a Noncontextual Reinterpretation of QM”, Journal of Physics A 45, 075303, p1-p13, IF 1.564.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2011), “The Modified Bell Inequality and Its Physical Implications in the ESR Model”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 50, 3787-3799, IF 0.845.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2011), “Representation and Interpretation of Quantum Mixtures in the ESR Model”, Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 168, 912-923, IF 0.650.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2011), “Generalized Observables, Bell's Inequalities and Mixtures in the ESR Model for QM”, Foundations of Physics 41, 424-449 (2011), IF 1.055.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2010), “Realistic Aspects in the Standard Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics”, Humana.mente. Journal of Philosophical Studies 13, 81-101 (2010).
- S. Sozzo and C. Garola (2010), “A Hilbert Space Representation of Generalized Observables and Measurement Processes in the ESR Model”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 49, 3262-3270 (2010), IF 0.845.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2009), “Embedding Quantum Mechanics Into a Broader Noncontextual Theory: A Conciliatory Result”, International Journal of Theoretical Physics 49, 3101-3117, IF 0.845.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2009), “The ESR Model: A Proposal for a Noncontextual and Local Hilbert Space Extension of QM”, Europhysics Letters 86, 20009, p1-p6, IF 2.120.
- Masillo, G. Scolarici and S. Sozzo (2009), “Proper Versus Improper Mixtures: Toward a Quaternionic Quantum Mechanics”, Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 160, 1007-1014, IF 0.650.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2007), “The Physical Interpretation of Partial Traces: Two Nonstandard Views”, Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 152, 1087-1098, IF 0.650.
- C. Garola, J. Pykacz and S. Sozzo (2006), “Quantum Machine and Semantic Realism Approach: A Unified Model”, Foundations of Physics 36, 862-882, IF 1.055.
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2004), “A Semantic Approach to the Completeness Problem in Quantum Mechanics”, Foundations of Physics 34, 1249-1266, IF 1.055.

**Editorial activities and books**

- Editor (with C. Garola and A. Rossi) of the volume “The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: Historical Analysis and Open Questions. Cesena 2004|, 362 pages, ISBN 981-256-852-2 (World Scientific, Singapore, 2006).

**Publications in scientific monographs**

- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2015), “Quantum Structure in Cognition: Origins, Developments, Successes and Expectations'”, in The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science: Applications and Grand Challenges, E. Haven and A. Khrennikov editors (Palgrave & Macmillan, 2015, in print), arXiv:1503.0299, on invitation.
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2015), “What is Quantum? Unifying Its Micro-Physical and Structural Appearance'”, in Quantum Interaction 2014, H. Atmanspacher, C. Bergomi, T. Filk and K. Kitto editors, 12-23, LNCS 8951 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2015), “A Quantum-theoretic Modeling for Concept Combination in Human Thought'”, in Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics IV, H. Liljenstroem editor, 393-399 (Spinger, Netherlands, 2015).
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2014), “Entanglement Zoo I: Foundational and Structural Aspects”, in Quantum Interaction 2013, A. Atmanspacher, E. Haven, K. Kitto and D. Raine eds, 84-96, LNCS 8369 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2014), “Entanglement Zoo II: Examples in Physics and Cognition”, in Quantum Interaction 2013, A. Atmanspacher, E. Haven, K. Kitto and D. Raine eds, 97-109, LNCS 8369 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz (2014), “Meaning-focused and Quantum-inspired Information Retrieval”, in Quantum Interaction 2013, A. Atmanspacher, E. Haven, K. Kitto and D. Raine eds, 71-83, LNCS 8369 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2012), “Quantum Model Theory (it QMod): Modeling Conceptual Emergent Entangled Entities”, in Quantum Interaction 2012, J. Busemeyer, F. Dubois and A. Lambert-Mogilansky eds, 126-137, LNCS 7620 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2012), “Entanglement of Conceptual Entities in Quantum Model Theory (it QMod)”, in Quantum Interaction 2012, J. Busemeyer, F. Dubois and A. Lambert-Mogilansky eds, 114-125, LNCS 7620 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts, S. Sozzo and J. Tapia (2012, “A Quantum Model for the Ellsberg and Machina Paradoxes”, in Quantum Interaction 2012, J. Busemeyer, F. Dubois and A. Lambert-Mogilansky eds, 48-59, LNCS 7620 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2011), “Quantum Structures in Cognition: Why and How Concepts Are Entangled”, in Quantum Interaction 2011, D. Song, M. Melucci and I. Frommholz eds, 118-129, LNCS 7052 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts, B. D'Hooghe and S. Sozzo (2011), “A Quantum Cognition Analysis of the Ellsberg Paradox”, in Quantum Interaction 2011, D. Song, M. Melucci and I. Frommholz eds, 95-104, LNCS 7052 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, B. D'Hooghe and S. Sozzo (2011), “Quantum Structure in Economics: Risk Versus Ambiguity”, in Worldviews, Science and Us: Bridging Knowledge and Its Implications for Our Perspective of the World, D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, B. D'Hooghe and N. Note eds, 281-303 (World Scientific, Singapore).
- D. Aerts, S. Bundervoet, M. Czachor, B. D'Hooghe, L. Gabora, P. Polk and S. Sozzo (2011), “On the Foundations of the Theory of Evolution”, in Worldviews, Science and Us: Bridging Knowledge and Its Implications for Our Perspective of the World, D. Aerts, J. Broekaert, B. D'Hooghe and N. Note eds, 266-280 (World Scientific, Singapore).
- D. Aerts, M. Czachor and S. Sozzo (2010), “A Contextual Quantum-Based Formalism for Population Dynamics”, in AAAI-Fall 2010. Quantum Informatics for Cognitive, Social, and Semantic Processes, P. D. Bruza et al. eds, 22-25 (Springer, Berlin).
- D. Aerts, M. Czachor, B. D'Hooghe and S. Sozzo (2010), “The Pet-Fish Problem on the World-Wide Web”, in AAAI-Fall 2010. Quantum Informatics for Cognitive, Social, and Semantic Processes, P. D. Bruza et al. eds, 17-21 (Springer, Berlin).

**Other publications**

- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2013), “General Quantum Hilbert Space Modeling Scheme for Entanglement”, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Quantum, Nano and Micro Technologies, V. Ovchinnikov and P. Dini eds, 25-31 (IARIA, 2013), Reported IF 13.3.
- D. Aerts, J. Broeakert, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz (2013), “The Quantum Challenge in Concept Theory and Natural Language Processing”, in Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on System Research, Informatics & Cybernetics, E. G. Lasker editor, 13-17 (IIAS).
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2012), “Quantum Interference in Cognition: Structural Aspects of the Brain”, in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Quantum, Nano and Micro Technologies, V. Ovchinnikov and P. Dini eds, 33-41 (IARIA), Reported IF 13.3.
- D. Aerts, B. D'Hooghe and S. Sozzo (2012), “A Quantum-like Approach to the Stock Market” in Foundations of Probability and Physics - 6, M. D'Ariano et al. eds, 495-506 (American Institute of Physics, Melville).
- D. Aerts, L. Gabora, S. Sozzo and T. Veloz (2011), “Quantum Structure in Cognition: Fundamentals and Applications”, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Quantum, Nano and Micro Technologies, V. Privman and V. Ovchinnikov eds, 57-62 (IARIA).
- D. Aerts, M. Czachor and S. Sozzo (2011), “Quantum Interaction Approach in Cognition, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics”, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Quantum, Nano and Micro Technologies, V. Privman and V. Ovchinnikov eds, 35-40 (IARIA).
- D. Aerts and S. Sozzo (2012), “Quantum Structure in Economics: The Ellsberg Paradox” in Foundations of Probability and Physics - 6, M. D'Ariano et al. eds, 487-494 (American Institute of Physics, Melville).
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2010), “The Representation of Mixtures in the ESR Model for QM”, in Quantum Theory: Reconsideration of Foundations - 5, A. Y. Khrennikov editor, 58-71 (American Institute of Physics, Melville).
- S. Sozzo (2009), “Discrete Generalized Observables and Ideal Measurements in the ESR Model: A Hilbert Space Representation” in Foundations of Probability and Physics - 5, L. Accardi et al. eds, 381-385 (American Institute of Physics, Melville).
- S. Sozzo (2007), “Modified BCHSH Inequalities within the ESR Model”, in Quantum Theory: Reconsideration of Foundations - 4, G. Adenier et al. eds, 334-338 (American Institute of Physics, Melville).
- C. Garola and S. Sozzo (2006), “On the Notion of Proposition in Classical and Quantum Mechanics”, in The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: Historical Analysis and Open Questions. Cesena 2004, C. Garola, A. Rossi and S. Sozzo eds, 156-177 (World Scientific, Singapore).
- C. Garola, A. Rossi and S. Sozzo (2006), “Introduction”, in The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: Historical Analysis and Open Questions. Cesena 2004, C. Garola, A. Rossi and S. Sozzo eds, 1-17 (World Scientific, Singapore).

## Research

My research interests are highly interdisciplinary and mainly concern the interface of natural and social sciences. I have provided substantial and pioneering contributions in the development of novel mathematical models in cognitive psychology, human decision-making and behavioural economics and finance.

**Themes for PhD theses**

- Quantum models in cognitive and social science
- Alternative approaches to decision theory
- The violation of expected utility theory in economics: Allais, Ellsberg and Machina paradoxes
- Violations of rationality and the foundations of human thought
- Concept theory: Identifying quantum structures in the mechanisms of concept combinations
- Towards a quantum-based theory of information retrieval and natural language processing