Dr. Turi King
Dr. Turi King
Doctoral Inaugural Lecture Title: 'What’s in a name? The relationship between British Surnames and Y Chromosome Type’
Dr. Turi King is currently working as a Wellcome Trust postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester carrying out further work on the link between surnames and DNA. She obtained her first degree in Biological Anthropology at the University of Cambridge before moving into the field of molecular genetics. She undertook the MSc in Molecular Genetics at the University of Leicester gaining a distinction. Moving back down to Cambridge to take up a PhD she decided to give it up when she found she was pregnant with her first child. She and her husband remained in Cambridge and she worked part-time in genetics before going on to have her second child. Over the years, Dr. King stayed in contact with her MSc Supervisor, Professor Mark Jobling, and jumped at the chance when offered the opportunity to carry out a PhD under his supervision on a Wellcome Trust Prize Studentship. She was awarded her PhD in November 2007, from the University of Leicester Department of Genetics. Her thesis was entitled “The relationship between British surnames and Y- chromosomal haplotypes”. Having had two further children during the course of her PhD, Dr. King is also now the proud mum of four young children.
Doctoral research by Dr. Turi King has shown that men with the same British surname are highly likely to be genetically linked. The results of her research have implications in the fields of forensics, genealogy, epidemiology and the history of surnames.
In Britain, surnames are passed down patrilinearly from father to son. A piece of our DNA, the Y chromosome, is the one part of our genetic material that confers maleness and is passed, like surnames, from father to son. Therefore, a link could exist between a man’s surname and the type of Y chromosome he carries. A simple link between name and Y chromosome could in principle connect all men sharing a surname into one large family tree.
However, in reality the link may not be so clear cut. Hereditary surnames in Britain are many hundreds of years old and each name may have had several founders. Events such as adoptions, name-changes and non-paternities would confuse any simple genetic link. Carried out in Professor Mark Jobling’s lab, Dr. Turi King’s research involved exploring this potential link between surname and Y chromosome type.
Dr. King commented: ‘As both surnames and the Y chromosome are passed down from father to son, it was possible that a link between the two would exist. These days, using genetic techniques, it is possible to tell Y chromosomes apart from one another so we wondered if you might find that a particular surname was associated with a particular Y chromosome type.’
‘There are a number of factors which could break the link between surnames and Y chromosome type: for example, there could have been more than one person, known as a surname founder, who took on a surname at the time of surname formation around 700 years ago. The surname Smith is a good example of this as it derives from the occupation of blacksmith so many men could have taken on the surname Smith. This means that instead of just one type of Y chromosome being associated with a surname, many different types of Y chromosomes would be associated with this single surname. On the other hand, for rarer names, there may have been just one founder for the name and potentially all men who bear that surname today would be descended from him and could be connected into one large family tree.’
‘The link between surname and Y chromosome type could also be broken through events such as adoption or illegitimacy: in this instance, a male child would have one man’s surname but another man’s Y chromosome type. Given all this, we really didn’t know if a link would exist.’
Dr. King's research showed that between two men who share the same surname there is a 24% chance of sharing a common ancestor through that name but that this increases to nearly 50% if the surname they have is rare. Dr King then went on to look at 40 surnames in depth by recruiting many different men all bearing the same surname, making sure that she excluded known relatives. Surnames such as Attenborough and Swindlehurst showed that over 70% of the men shared the same or near identical Y chromosome types whereas surnames such as Northam, Beckham and Titchmarsh show more than one group of men sharing common ancestry but unrelated to other groups. These results have a potential use in forensic science, since it suggests that, given large databases of names and Y chromosome profiles, surname prediction from DNA alone may be feasible.